• Профилактика дефицита витамина D у детей. Состояние проблемы в мире и Украине
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Профилактика дефицита витамина D у детей. Состояние проблемы в мире и Украине

Modern Pediatrics. Ukraine. 2021.4(116): 36-45. doi 10.15574/SP.2021.116.36
Марушко Ю. В., Гищак Т. В.
Национальный медицинский университет имени А.А. Богомольца, г. Киев, Украина

Для цитирования: Марушко ЮВ, Гищак ТВ. (2021). Профилактика дефицита витамина D у детей. Состояние проблемы в мире и Украине. Современная педиатрия. Украина. 4(116): 3645. doi 10.15574/SP.2021.116.36.
Статья поступила в редакцию 23.03.2021 г., принята в печать 16.05.2021 г.

Приведены современные данные о распространенности дефицита витамина D и критерии его дефицита у детей в разных странах. Признано, что витамин D является одним из важнейших витаминов, принимающих участие во многих биохимических процессах организма. Активные метаболиты этого витамина играют ключевую роль в усвоении кальция, минерализации костей и способствуют метаболизму фосфатов и магния. В то же время, кроме влияния на минеральный обмен, существует широкий круг состояний, при которых витамин D также выполняет профилактическую роль. Доказано, что витамин D играет жизненно важную роль в поддержании врожденного иммунитета и имеет значение для профилактики некоторых заболеваний, в том числе инфекций, аутоиммунных заболеваний, некоторых форм рака, сахарного диабета 1 и 2-го типов и сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний. Особое значение витамин D имеет для новорожденных и детей раннего возраста. Так, этот витамин участвует в важных физиологических процессах регуляции, таких как костный метаболизм, развитие легких, созревание иммунной системы и дифференциация нервной системы. Дефицит витамина D повышает риск сепсиса новорожденных, некротизирующего энтероколита, респираторного дистресс-синдрома бронхолегочной дисплазии. Адекватное потребление витамина D и кальция в детстве может уменьшить риск развития остеопороза, а также других болезней, связанных с дефицитом витамина D у взрослых. Недавно дефицит витамина D оказался потенциальным фактором риска, дающим склонность к развитию COVID-19. Установлено, что на сегодняшний день большинством научных педиатрических обществ признана необходимость профилактики дефицита витамина D у здоровых детей всех возрастных групп, однако данные по дозировке витамина D при его профилактическом назначении отличаются. Большинство обществ рекомендуют с профилактической целью принимать в среднем 400–600 МЕ в сутки витамина D. Анализ опубликованных данных свидетельствует о необходимости соблюдения стратегии, основанной на индивидуальном подходе, с учетом физиологических особенностей, индивидуальных требований и образа жизни детей, которым проводится профилактика дефицита витамина D. Авторы заявляют об отсутствии конфликта интересов.
Ключевые слова: витамин D, дети, дефицит, профилактика.

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