• Цервикальная недостаточность и цервикальный серкляж
ru К содержанию

Цервикальная недостаточность и цервикальный серкляж

HEALTH OF WOMAN. 2019.3(139): 107–117

ОБЩЕСТВО акушеров и гинекологов КАНАДЫ
. 373, февраль 2019 (Заменяет No. 301, декабрь 2013)
J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2019; 41 (2): 233-247

Перевод — Л.В. Пахаренко


1. Rand L, Norwitz ER. Current controversies in cervical cerclage. Semin Perinatol 2003;27:73–85.

2. Lidegaard O. Cervical incompetence and cerclage in Denmark 1980-1990. A register based epidemiological survey. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1994;73:35–8.

3. McDonald IA. Incompetence of the cervix. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1978;18:34–7.

4. Shennan A, Jones B. The cervix and prematurity: aetiology, prediction and prevention. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2004;9:471–9.

5. Drakeley AJ, Roberts D, Alfirevic Z. Cervical stitch (cerclage) for preventing pregnancy loss in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003 (1):CD003253.

6. Althuisius SM, Dekker GA, Hummel P, et al. Final results of the Cervical Incompetence Prevention Randomized Cerclage Trial (CIPRACT): therapeutic cerclage with bed rest versus bed rest alone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:1106–12.

7. De Vos M, Nuytinck L, Verellen C, et al. Preterm premature rupture of membranes in a patient with the hypermobility type of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A case report. Fetal Diagn Ther 1999;14:244–7.

8. Feigenbaum SL, Crites Y, Hararah MK, et al. Prevalence of cervical insufficiency in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Hum Reprod 2012;27:2837–42.

9. Drakeley AJ, Quenby S, Farquharson RG. Mid-trimester loss−appraisal of a screening protocol. Hum Reprod 1998;13:1975–80.

10. Odibo AO, Talucci M, Berghella V. Prediction of preterm premature rupture of membranes by transvaginal ultrasound features and risk factors in a high-risk population. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002;20:245–51.

11. Owen J, Yost N, Berghella V, et al. Mid-trimester endovaginal sonography in women at high risk for spontaneous preterm birth. JAMA 2001;286:1340–8.

12. To MS, Skentou C, Liao AW, et al. Cervical length and funneling at 23 weeks of gestation in the prediction of spontaneous early preterm delivery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2001;18:200–3.

13. Leitich H, Brunbauer M, Kaider A, et al. Cervical length and dilatation of the internal cervical os detected by vaginal ultrasonography as markers for preterm delivery: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;181:1465–72.

14. Petersen LK, Uldbjerg N. Cervical collagen in non-pregnant women with previous cervical incompetence. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1996;67:41–5.

15. Ugwumadu A. Chorioamnionitis and mid-trimester pregnancy loss. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2010;70:281–5.

16. Lee SE, Romero R, Park CW, et al. The frequency and significance of intraamniotic inflammation in patients with cervical insufficiency. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;198:633e1–8.

17. Block MF, Rahhal DK. Cervical incompetence. A diagnostic and prognostic scoring system. Obstet Gynecol 1976;47:279–81.

18. Toaff R, Toaff ME, Ballas S, et al. Cervical incompetence: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Isr J Med Sci 1977;13:39–49.

19. Zlatnik FJ, Burmeister LF, Feddersen DA, et al. Radiologic appearance of the upper cervical canal in women with a history of premature delivery. II. Relationship to clinical presentation and to tests of cervical compliance. J Reprod Med 1989;34:525–30.

20. Zlatnik FJ, Burmeister LF. Interval evaluation of the cervix for predicting pregnancy outcome and diagnosing cervical incompetence. J Reprod Med 1993;38:365–9.

21. Anthony GS, Walker RG, Robins JB, et al. Management of cervical weakness based on the measurement of cervical resistance index. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2007;134:174–8.

22. Domin CM, Smith EJ, Terplan M. Transvaginal ultrasonographic measurement of cervical length as a predictor of preterm birth: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Ultrasound Q 2010;26:241–8.

23. Fischer RL, Sveinbjornsson G, Hansen C. Cervical sonography in pregnant women with a prior cone biopsy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010;36:613–7.

24. Rust OA, Atlas RO, Reed J, et al. Revisiting the short cervix detected by transvaginal ultrasound in the second trimester: why cerclage therapy may not help. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:1098–105.

25. Visintine J, Berghella V, Henning D, et al. Cervical length for prediction of preterm birth in women with multiple prior induced abortions. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2008;31:198–200.

26. Iams JD, Johnson FF, Sonek J, et al. Cervical competence as a continuum: a study of ultrasonographic cervical length and obstetric performance. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;172:1097–103. discussion 104–6.

27. Vidaeff AC, Ramin SM. From concept to practice: the recent history of preterm delivery prevention. Part I: cervical competence. Am J Perinatol 2006;23:3–13.

28. Lees DH, Sutherst JR. The sequelae of cervical trauma. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1974;120:1050–4.

29. Berger MJ, Goldstein DP. Impaired reproductive performance in DESexposed women. Obstet Gynecol 1980;55:25–7.

30. Ludmir J, Landon MB, Gabbe SG, et al. Management of the diethylstilbestrol-exposed pregnant patient: a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1987;157:665–9.

31. Singer MS, Hochman M. Incompetent cervix in a hormone-exposed offspring. Obstet Gynecol 1978;51:625–6.

32. Moragianni VA, Aronis KN, Craparo FJ. Biweekly ultrasound assessment of cervical shortening in triplet pregnancies and the effect of cerclage placement. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;37:617–8.

33. Owen J, Yost N, Berghella V, et al. Can shortened midtrimester cervical length predict very early spontaneous preterm birth? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:298–303.

34. Odibo AO, Farrell C, Macones GA, et al. Development of a scoring system for predicting the risk of preterm birth in women receiving cervical cerclage. J Perinatol 2003;23:664–7.

35. Abdel-Aleem H, Shaaban OM, Abdel-Aleem MA. Cervical pessary for preventing preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010(9):CD007873.

36. Simcox R, Seed PT, Bennett P, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cervical scanning vs history to determine cerclage in women at high risk of preterm birth (CIRCLE trial). Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;200:623e1–6.

37. Lazar P, Gueguen S, Dreyfus J, et al. Multicentred controlled trial of cervical cerclage in women at moderate risk of preterm delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1984;91:731–5.

38. Rush RW, Isaacs S, McPherson K, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cervical cerclage in women at high risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1984;91:724–30.

39. Alfirevic Z, Stampalija T, Roberts D, et al. Cervical stitch (cerclage) for preventing preterm birth in singleton pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012(4):CD008991.

40. HarphamME, Algert CS, Roberts CL, et al. Cervical cerclage placed before 14 weeks gestation in women with one previous midtrimester loss: a population-based cohort study. AustNZ J Obstet Gynaecol 2017;57:593–8.

41. Leitich H, Bodner-Adler B, Brunbauer M, et al. Bacterial vaginosis as a risk factor for preterm delivery: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:139–47.

42. Leitich H, Brunbauer M, Bodner-Adler B, et al. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;188:752–8.

43. Matijevic R, Grgic O, Knezevic M. Vaginal pH versus cervical length in the mid-trimester as screening predictors of preterm labor in a low-risk population. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2010;111:41–4.

44. Ankirskaia AS, Demidova EM, Zemlianaia AA, et al. [Genital Mycoplasma as a risk factor of obstetric and perinatal pathology]. Vestn Akad Med Nauk SSSR 1991: 17–9.

45. Hassan S, Romero R, Hendler I, et al. A sonographic short cervix as the only clinical manifestation of intra-amniotic infection. J Perinat Med 2006;34:13–9.

46. Bujold E, Morency AM, Rallu F, et al. Bacteriology of amniotic fluid in women with suspected cervical insufficiency. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2008;30:882–7.

47. Oh KJ, Lee SE, Jung H, et al. Detection of ureaplasmas by the polymerase chain reaction in the amniotic fluid of patients with cervical insufficiency. J Perinat Med 2010;38:261–8.

48. Romero R, Mazor M, Morrotti R, et al. Infection and labor. VII. Microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity in spontaneous rupture of membranes at term. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;166:129–33.

49. Airoldi J, Pereira L, Cotter A, et al. Amniocentesis prior to physical exam-indicated cerclage in women with midtrimester cervical dilation: results from the expectant management compared to Physical Examindicated Cerclage international cohort study. Am J Perinatol 2009;26:63–8.

50. McDonald IA. Suture of the cervix for inevitable miscarriage. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp 1957;64:346–50.

51. Shirodkar VN. A new method of operative treatment for habitual abortion in the second trimester of pregnancy. Antiseptic 1955;52:299–300.

52. The Shirodkar stitch. Lancet 1977;2:691–2.

53. Branch DW. Operations for cervical incompetence. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1986;29:240–54.

54. Caspi E, Schneider DF, Mor Z, et al. Cervical internal os cerclage: description of a new technique and comparison with Shirodkar operation. Am J Perinatol 1990;7:347–9.

55. Druzin ML, Berkeley AS. A simplified approach to Shirodkar cerclage procedure. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1986;162:375–6.

56. Odibo AO, Berghella V, To MS, et al. Shirodkar versus McDonald cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth in women with short cervical length. Am J Perinatol 2007;24:55–60.

57. Harger JH. Comparison of success and morbidity in cervical cerclage procedures. Obstet Gynecol 1980;56:543–8.

58. Woensdregt K, Norwitz ER, Cackovic M, et al. Effect of 2 stitches vs 1 stitch on the prevention of preterm birth in women with singleton pregnancies who undergo cervical cerclage. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;198:396e1–7.

59. Secher NJ, McCormack CD, Weber T, et al. Cervical occlusion in women with cervical insufficiency: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial with cerclage, with and without cervical occlusion. BJOG 2007;114:649e1–6.

60. Brodman ML, Friedman Jr. F, Morrow JD, et al. Wide-band transabdominal cerclage for a foreshortened, incompetent cervix. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:704–6.

61. Luznik M. Use of mesh cerclage in prevention of early preterm delivery: a promising new surgical method for women with dilated cervix and membrane herniation? Wien Klin Wochenschr 2006;118(Suppl 2):76–9.

62. Abdelhak YE, Sheen JJ, Kuczynski E, et al. Comparison of delayed absorbable suture v nonabsorbable suture for treatment of incompetent cervix. J Perinat Med 1999;27:250–2.

63. Goodman S. Anesthesia for nonobstetric surgery in the pregnant patient. Semin Perinatol 2002;26:136–45.

64. PaechM. Regional analgesia and anaesthesia. In: Russell R, ed. Anaesthesia for obstetrics and gynaecology, London: BMJ Publishing Group; 2008:109–77.

65. Locci M, Nazzaro G, Merenda A, et al. Atosiban vs ritodrine used prophylactically with cerclage in ICSI pregnancies to prevent pre-term birth in women identified as being at high risk on the basis of transvaginal ultrasound scan. J Obstet Gynaecol 2006;26:396–401.

66. Visintine J, Airoldi J, Berghella V. Indomethacin administration at the time of ultrasound-indicated cerclage: is there an association with a reduction in spontaneous preterm birth? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;198:643e1–3.

67. Charles D, Edwards WR. Infectious complications of cervical cerclage. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1981;141:1065–71.

68. Kessler I, Shoham Z, Lancet M, et al. Complications associated with genital colonization in pregnancies with and without cerclage. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1988;27:359–63.

69. Shiffman RL. Continuous low-dose antibiotics and cerclage for recurrent second-trimester pregnancy loss. J Reprod Med 2000;45:323–6.

70. Ayers JW, Peterson EP, Ansbacher R. Early therapy for the incompetent cervix in patients with habitual abortion. Fertil Steril 1982;38:177–81.

71. Zakut H, Lanciano A. The influence of progesterone treatment on the course and outcome of pregnancies following suture of the cervix for cervical incompetence. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1981;8:1–5.

72. Rebarber A, Cleary-Goldman J, Istwan NB, et al. The use of 17 alphahydroxyprogesterone caproate (17p) in women with cervical cerclage. Am J Perinatol 2008;25:271–5.

73. Berghella V, Figueroa D, Szychowski JM, et al. 17-alphahydroxyprogesterone caproate for the prevention of preterm birth in women with prior preterm birth and a short cervical length. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;202:351e1–6.

74. Rafael TJ, Mackeen AD, Berghella V. The effect of 17alphahydroxyprogesterone caproate on preterm birth in women with an ultrasound-indicated cerclage. Am J Perinatol 2011;28:389–94.

75. Melamed N, Ben-Haroush A, Chen R, et al. Intrapartum cervical lacerations: characteristics, risk factors, and effects on subsequent pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;200:388e1–4.

76. Parikh R, Brotzman S, Anasti JN. Cervical lacerations: some surprising facts. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;196:e17–8.

77. Landy HJ, Laughon SK, Bailit JL, et al. Characteristics associated with severe perineal and cervical lacerations during vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:627–35.

78. Bonfadini Bossi E, Migliavacca AE, Fagnani D, et al. [Treatment of segmental cervical incompetence in pregnancy. Surgical indications, technic and results of 128 cervical cerclage operations]. Minerva Ginecol  1981;33:385–8.

79. Jorgensen AL, Alfirevic Z, Tudur Smith C, et al. Cervical stitch (cerclage) for preventing pregnancy loss: individual patient data meta-analysis. BJOG 2007;114:1460–76.

80. Bassaw B, Roopnarinesingh S. The efficacy of cervical cerclage. West Indian Med J 1990;39:39–42.

81. Weissman A, Jakobi P, Zahi S, et al. The effect of cervical cerclage on the course of labor. Obstet Gynecol 1990;76:168–71.

82. Abdelhak YE, Aronov R, Roque H, et al. Management of cervical cerclage at term: remove the suture in labor? J Perinat Med 2000;28:453–7.

83. Funai EF, Paidas MJ, Rebarber A, et al. Change in cervical length after prophylactic cerclage. Obstet Gynecol 1999;94:117–9.

84. Guzman ER, Houlihan C, Vintzileos A, et al. The significance of transvaginal ultrasonographic evaluation of the cervix in women treated with emergency cerclage. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;175:471–6.

85. Althuisius SM, Dekker GA, van Geijn HP, et al. The effect of therapeutic McDonald cerclage on cervical length as assessed by transvaginal ultrasonography. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999;180:366–9.

86. Dijkstra K, Funai EF, O’Neill L, et al. Change in cervical length after cerclage as a predictor of preterm delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2000;96: 346–50.

87. Andersen HF, Karimi A, Sakala EP, et al. Prediction of cervical cerclage outcome by endovaginal ultrasonography. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994;171:1102–6.

88. Baxter JK, Airoldi J, Berghella V. Short cervical length after historyindicated cerclage: is a reinforcing cerclage beneficial? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:1204–7.

89. Fox R, Holmes R, James M, et al. Serial transvaginal ultrasonography following McDonald cerclage and repeat suture insertion. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1998;38:27–30.

90. Duhig KE, Chandiramani M, Seed PT, et al. Fetal fibronectin as a predictor of spontaneous preterm labour in asymptomatic women with a cervical cerclage. BJOG 2009;116:799–803.

91. Jenkins TM, Berghella V, Shlossman PA, et al. Timing of cerclage removal after preterm premature rupture of membranes: maternal and neonatal outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:847–52.

92. Ludmir J, Bader T, Chen L, et al. Poor perinatal outcome associated with retained cerclage in patients with premature rupture of membranes. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:823–6.

93. McElrath TF, Norwitz ER, Lieberman ES, et al. Management of cervical cerclage and preterm premature rupture of the membranes: should the stitch be removed? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:840–6.

94. Giraldo-Isaza MA, Berghella V. Cervical cerclage and preterm PROM. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2011;54:313–20.

95. Trochez-Martinez RD, Smith P, Lamont RF. Use of C-reactive protein as a predictor of chorioamnionitis in preterm prelabour rupture of membranes: a systematic review. BJOG 2007;114:796–801.

96. Wiwanitkit V. Maternal C-reactive protein for detection of chorioamnionitis: an appraisal. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2005;13:179–81.

97. Friedli I, Stamm J, Beguin F. [Cerclage by the abdominal route]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 1987;16:951–4.

98. Gesson-Paute A, Berrebi A, Parant O. [Transabdominal cervico-isthmic cerclage in the management of cervical incompetence in high risk women]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 2007;36:30–5.

99. Benson RC, Durfee RB. Transabdominal cervico uterine cerclage during pregnancy for the treatment of cervical incompetency. Obstet Gynecol 1965;25:145–55.

100. Zaveri V, Aghajafari F, Amankwah K, et al. Abdominal versus vaginal cerclage after a failed transvaginal cerclage: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187:868–72.

101. Davis G, Berghella V, Talucci M, et al. Patients with a prior failed transvaginal cerclage: a comparison of obstetric outcomes with either transabdominal or transvaginal cerclage. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:836–9.

102. Lotgering FK, Gaugler-Senden IP, Lotgering SF, et al. Outcome after transabdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage. Obstet Gynecol 2006;107:779–84.

103. Jolley JA, Battista L, Wing DA. Management of pregnancy after radical trachelectomy: case reports and systematic review of the literature. Am J Perinatol 2007;24:531–9.

104. Dubuisson J, Jardon K, Botchorishvili R, et al. [How I perform… a laparoscopic transabdominal isthmic cerclage]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil 2008;36:459–60.

105. Carter JF, Soper DE, Goetzl LM, et al. Abdominal cerclage for the treatment of recurrent cervical insufficiency: laparoscopy or laparotomy? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201:111e1–4.

106. Shepherd JH, Milliken DA. Conservative surgery for carcinoma of the cervix. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2008;20:395–400.

107. Benifla JL, Goffinet F, Darai E, et al. Emergency cervical cerclage after 20 weeks’ gestation: a retrospective study of 6 years’ practice in 34 cases. Fetal Diagn Ther 1997;12:274–8.

108. Olatunbosun OA, Dyck F. Cervical cerclage operation for a dilated cervix. Obstet Gynecol 1981;57:166–70.

109. Ochi M, Ishikawa K, Itoh H, et al. [Aggressive management of prolapsed fetal membranes earlier than 26 weeks’ gestation by emergent McDonald cerclage combined with amniocentesis and bladder overfilling]. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 1994;46:301–7.

110. Mays JK, Figueroa R, Shah J, et al. Amniocentesis for selection before rescue cerclage. Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:652–5.

111. Althuisius SM, Dekker GA, Hummel P, et al. Cervical incompetence prevention randomized cerclage trial: emergency cerclage with bed rest versus bed rest alone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:907–10.

112. Daskalakis G, Papantoniou N, Mesogitis S, et al. Management of cervical insufficiency and bulging fetal membranes. Obstet Gynecol 2006;107:221–6.

113. Stupin JH, David M, Siedentopf JP, et al. Emergency cerclage versus bed rest for amniotic sac prolapse before 27 gestational weeks. A retrospective, comparative study of 161 women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2008;139:32–7.

114. Schorr SJ, Morales WJ. Obstetric management of incompetent cervix and bulging fetal membranes. J Reprod Med 1996;41:235–8.

115. Olatunbosun OA, al-Nuaim L, Turnell RW. Emergency cerclage compared with bed rest for advanced cervical dilatation in pregnancy. Int Surg 1995;80:170–4.

116. Kokia E, Dor J, Blankenstein J, et al. A simple scoring system for the treatment of cervical incompetence diagnosed during the second trimester. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1991;31:12–6.

117. Terkildsen MF, Parilla BV, Kumar P, et al. Factors associated with success of emergent second-trimester cerclage. Obstet Gynecol 2003;101:565–9.

118. Jalal EM, Moretti F, Gruslin A. Predictors of outcomes of non-elective cervical cerclages. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2016;38:252–7.

119. Tsatsaris V, Senat MV, Gervaise A, et al. Balloon replacement of fetal membranes to facilitate emergency cervical cerclage. Obstet Gynecol 2001;98:243–6.

120. Weiner CP, Lee KY, Buhimschi CS, et al. Proteomic biomarkers that predict the clinical success of rescue cerclage. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:710–8.

121. Locatelli A, Vergani P, Bellini P, et al. Amnioreduction in emergency cerclage with prolapsed membranes: comparison of two methods for reducing the membranes. Am J Perinatol 1999;16:73–7.

122. Cerqui AJ, Olive E, Bennett MJ, et al. Emergency cervical cerclage. Is there a role for amnioreduction? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1999;39:155–8.

123. Makino Y, Makino I, Tsujioka H, et al. Amnioreduction in patients with bulging prolapsed membranes out of the cervix and vaginal orifice in cervical cerclage. J Perinat Med 2004;32:140–8.

124. Jiratko K, Baran P, Zabransky F. [Our experiences with Mayer-Ringpessary in the prevention of premature labor (author’s transl)]. Zentralbl Gynakol 1977;99:220–8.

125. Quaas L, Hillemanns HG, du Bois A, et al. [The Arabin cerclage pessary−an alternative to surgical cerclage]. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 1990;50:429–33.

126. Leduc L, Wasserstrum N. Successful treatment with the Smith-Hodge pessary of cervical incompetence due to defective connective tissue in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Am J Perinatol 1992;9:25–7.

127. Newcomer J. Pessaries for the treatment of incompetent cervix and premature delivery. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2000;55:443–8.

128. Arabin B, Halbesma JR, Vork F, et al. Is treatment with vaginal pessaries an option in patients with a sonographically detected short cervix? J Perinat Med 2003;31:122–33.

129. Acharya G, Eschler B, Gronberg M, et al. Noninvasive cerclage for the management of cervical incompetence: a prospective study. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2006;273:283–7.

130. Dharan VB, Ludmir J. Alternative treatment for a short cervix: the cervical pessary. Semin Perinatol 2009;33:338–42.

131. Grzonka DT, Kazmierczak W, Cholewa D, et al. [Herbich cervical pessary–method of therapy for cervical incompetence and prophylaxis of prematurity]. Wiad Lek 2004;57(Suppl 1):105–7.

132. Kimber-Trojnar Z, Patro-Malysza J, Leszczynska-Gorzelak B, et al. Pessary use for the treatment of cervical incompetence and prevention of preterm labour. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2010;23:1493–9.

133. Goya M, Pratcorona L, Merced C, et al. Cervical pessary in pregnant women with a short cervix (PECEP): an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2012;379:1800–6.

134. Nicolaides KH, Syngelaki A, Poon LC, et al. Cervical pessary placement for prevention of preterm birth in unselected twin pregnancies: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2016;214:3e1–9.

135. Berghella V, Haas S, Chervoneva I, et al. Patients with prior secondtrimester loss: prophylactic cerclage or serial transvaginal sonograms? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187:747–51.

136. To MS, Palaniappan V, Skentou C, et al. Elective cerclage vs. ultrasoundindicated cerclage in high-risk pregnancies. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2002;19:475–7.

137. Sosa C, Althabe F, Belizan J, et al. Bed rest in singleton pregnancies for preventing preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004(1): CD003581.

138. Hertzberg BS, Bowie JD, Weber TM, et al. Sonography of the cervix during the third trimester of pregnancy: value of the transperineal approach. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991;157:73–6.

139. Guzman ER, Vintzileos AM, McLean DA, et al. The natural history of a positive response to transfundal pressure in women at risk for cervical incompetence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;176:634–8.

140. Guzman ER, Pisatowski DM, Vintzileos AM, et al. A comparison of ultrasonographically detected cervical changes in response to transfundal pressure, coughing, and standing in predicting cervical incompetence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;177:660–5.

141. Guzman ER, Rosenberg JC, Houlihan C, et al. A new method using vaginal ultrasound and transfundal pressure to evaluate the asymptomatic incompetent cervix. Obstet Gynecol 1994;83:248–52.

142. Berghella V, Keeler SM, To MS, et al. Effectiveness of cerclage according to severity of cervical length shortening: a meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010;35:468–73.

143. Incerti M, Ghidini A, Locatelli A, et al. Cervical length < or = 25 mm in low-risk women: a case control study of cerclage with rest vs rest alone. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007;197:315e1–4.

144. To MS, Alfirevic Z, Heath VC, et al. Cervical cerclage for prevention of preterm delivery in women with short cervix: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004;363:1849–53.

145. Berghella V, Odibo AO, To MS, et al. Cerclage for short cervix on ultrasonography: meta-analysis of trials using individual patient-level data. Obstet Gynecol 2005;106:181–9.

146. Berghella V, Rafael TJ, Szychowski JM, et al. Cerclage for short cervix on ultrasonography in women with singleton gestations and previous preterm birth: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol 2011;117:663–71.

147. Heath VC, Souka AP, Erasmus I, et al. Cervical length at 23 weeks of gestation: the value of Shirodkar suture for the short cervix. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1998;12:318–22.

148. Hibbard JU, Snow J, Moawad AH. Short cervical length by ultrasound and cerclage. J Perinatol 2000;20:161–5.

149. Owen J, Hankins G, Iams JD, et al. Multicenter randomized trial of cerclage for preterm birth prevention in high-risk women with shortened midtrimester cervical length. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201:375e1–8.

150. Keeler SM, Kiefer D, Rochon M, et al. A randomized trial of cerclage vs. 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate for treatment of short cervix. J Perinat Med 2009;37:473–9.

151. Hassan SS, Romero R, Vidyadhari D, et al. Vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2011;38:18–31.

152. Romero R, Nicolaides K, Conde-Agudelo A, et al. Vaginal progesterone in women with an asymptomatic sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester decreases preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity: a systematic review and metaanalysis of individual patient data. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2012;206:124e1–19.

153. Farine D, Mundle WR, Dodd J, et al. The use of progesterone for prevention of preterm birth. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2008;30:67–71.

154. Dor J, Shalev J, Mashiach S, et al. Elective cervical suture of twin pregnancies diagnosed ultrasonically in the first trimester following induced ovulation. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1982;13:55–60.

155. Yang JH, Kuhlman K,Daly S, et al. Prediction of pretermbirth by second trimester cervical sonography in twin pregnancies. UltrasoundObstetGynecol 2000;15:288–91.

156. Newman RB, Krombach RS, Myers MC, et al. Effect of cerclage on obstetrical outcome in twin gestations with a shortened cervical length. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:634–40.

157. Zucchini S, Borghesani F, Soffriti G, et al. Transvaginal ultrasound diagnosis of twin reversed arterial perfusion syndrome at 9 weeks’ gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1993;3:209–11.

158. Roman A, Rochelson B, Fox NS, et al. Efficacy of ultrasoundindicated cerclage in twin pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2015;212:788e1–6.

159. Houlihan C, Poon LC, Ciarlo M, et al. Cervical cerclage for preterm birth prevention in twin gestation with short cervix: a retrospective cohort study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016;48:752–6.

160. Saccone G, Rust O, Althuisius S, et al. Cerclage for short cervix in twin pregnancies: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials using individual patient-level data. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2015;94:352–8.

161. Aboudiab MS, Chon AH, Korst LM, et al. Management of twin-twin transfusion syndrome with an extremely short cervix. J Obstet Gynaecol 2018;38:359–62.