• Placenta praevia and Placenta accreta: diagnostics and management Green-top Guideline No. 27a September 2018

Placenta praevia and Placenta accreta: diagnostics and management Green-top Guideline No. 27a September 2018

HEALTH OF WOMAN. 2018.10(136):101–119

https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines
Abridged version. Adapted – S.A. Shurpyak

REFERENCES

1. Jauniaux E, Jurkovic D. 2012. Placenta accreta: pathogenesis of a 20th century iatrogenic uterine disease. Placenta 33:244–51.

3. Bowman ZS, Eller AG, Bardsley TR, Greene T, Varner MW, Silver RM. 2014. Risk factors for placenta accreta: a large prospective cohort. Am J Perinatol 31:799–804.

4. Vintzileos AM, Ananth CV, Smulian JC. 2015. Using ultrasound in the clinical management of placental implantation abnormalities. Am J Obstet Gynecol 213:S70–7.

5. Silver RM. 2015. Abnormal placentation: Placenta previa, vasa previa and placenta accreta. Obstet Gynecol 126:654–68.

6. Jauniaux E, Campbell S. 1990. Ultrasonographic assessment of placental abnormalities. Am J Obstet Gynecol 163:1650–8.

7. Ballas S, Gitstein S, Jaffa AJ, Peyser MR. 1979. Midtrimester placenta previa: normal or pathologic finding. Obstet Gynecol 54:12–4.

8. Reddy UM, Abuhamad AZ, Levine D, Saade GR. 2014. Fetal Imaging Workshop Invited Participants. Fetal imaging: Executive summary of a joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American College of Radiology, Society for Pediatric Radiology, and Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Fetal Imaging Workshop. J Ultrasound Med 33:745–57.

9. Vahanian SA, Lavery JA, Ananth CV, Vintzileos A. 2015. Placental implantation abnormalities and risk of preterm delivery: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 213:S78–90.

10. Ruiter L, Eschbach SJ, Burgers M, Rengerink KO, van Pampus MG, Goes BY et al. 2016. Predictors for emergency cesarean delivery in women with placenta previa. Am J Perinatol 33:1407–14.

11. Irving C, Hertig AT. 1937. A study of placenta accreta. Surg Gynec Obst 64:178–200.

12. Luke RK, Sharpe JW, Greene RR. 1966. Placenta accreta: the adherent or invasive placenta. Am J Obstet Gynecol 95:660–8.

13. Fox H, Sebire NJ, editors. 2007. Pathology of the Placenta. 3rd edition. Philadelphia: Saunders-Elsevier.

14. Benirschke K, Burton GJ, Baergen RN, editors. 2012. Pathology of the Human Placenta. 6th ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

15. Zosmer N, Jauniaux E, Bunce C, Panaiotova J, Shaikh H, Nicholaides KH. 2018. Interobserver agreement on standardized ultrasound and histopathologic signs for the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta spectrum disorders. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 140:326–31.

16. Jauniaux E, Collins SL, Jurkovic D, Burton GJ. 2016. Accreta placentation: a systematic review of prenatal ultrasound imaging and grading of villous invasiveness. Am J Obstet Gynecol 215:712–21.

17. Jauniaux E, Collins S, Burton GJ. 2018. Placenta accreta spectrum: pathophysiology and evidence-based anatomy for prenatal ultrasound imaging. Am J Obstet Gynecol 218:75–87.

18. Collins SL, Chantraine F, Morgan TK, Jauniaux E. 2018. Abnormally adherent and invasive placenta: a spectrum disorder in need of a name. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 51:165–6.

19. O’Brien JM, Barton JR, Donaldson ES. 1996. The management of placenta percreta: conservative and operative strategies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 175:1632–8.

20. Bowman ZS, Manuck TA, Eller AG, Simons M, Silver RM. 2014. Risk factors for unscheduled delivery in patients with placenta accreta. Am J Obstet Gynecol 210:241.e1–6.

21. Shamshirsaz AA, Fox KA, Salmanian B, Diaz-Arrastia CR, Lee W, Baker BW et al. 2015. Maternal morbidity in patients with morbidly adherent placenta treated with and without a standardized multidisciplinary approach. Am J Obstet Gynecol 212:218.e1-9.

22. Shamshirsaz AA, Fox KA, Erfani H, Clark SL, Salmanian B, Baker BW et al. 2017. Multidisciplinary team learning in the management of the morbidly adherent placenta: outcome improvements over time. Am J Obstet Gynecol 216:612.e1–e5.

23. Ananth CV, Smulian JC, Vintzileos AM. 1997. The association of placenta previa with history of cesarean delivery and abortion: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 177:1071–8.

24. Marshall NE, Fu R, Guise JM. 2011. Impact of multiple cesarean deliveries on maternal morbidity: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 205:262.e1–8.

25. Klar M, Michels KB. 2014. Cesarean section and placental disorders in subsequent pregnancies–a meta-analysis. J Perinat Med 42:571–83.

26. Getahun D, Oyelese Y, Salihu HM, Ananth CV. 2006. Previous cesarean delivery and risks of placenta previa and placental abruption. Obstet Gynecol 107:771–8.

27. Downes KL, Hinkle SN, Sjaarda LA, Albert PS, Grantz KL. 2015. Previous prelabor or intrapartum cesarean delivery and risk of placenta previa. Am J Obstet Gynecol 212:669.e1–6.

28. Ananth CV, Demissie K, Smulian JC, Vintzileos AM. 2003. Placenta praevia in singleton and twin births in the United States, 1989 through 1998: a comparison of risk factor profiles and associated conditions. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188:275–81.

29. Weis MA, Harper LM, Roehl KA, Odibo AO, Cahill AG. 2012. Natural history of placenta previa in twins. Obstet Gynecol 120:753–8.

30. Grady R, Alavi N, Vale R, Khandwala M, McDonald SD. 2012. Elective single embryo transfer and perinatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril 97:324–31.

31. Korosec S, Ban Frangez H, Verdenik I, Kladnik U, Kotar V, Virant-Klun I et al. 2014. Singleton pregnancy outcomes after in vitro fertilization with fresh or frozen-thawed embryo transfer and incidence of placenta praevia. Biomed Res Int 2014:431797.

32. Qin J, Liu X, Sheng X, Wang H, Gao S. 2016. Assisted reproductive technology and the risk of pregnancy-related complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes in singleton pregnancies: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Fertil Steril 105:73–85.e1–6.

33. Karami M, Jenabi E, Fereidooni B. 2017. The association of placenta previa and associated reproductive techniques: a meta-analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 284:47–51.

34. Shobeiri F, Jenabi E. 2017. Smoking and placenta previa: a meta-analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 30:2985–90.

35. Rosenberg T, Pariente G, Sergienko R, Wiznitzer A, Sheiner E. 2011. Critical analysis of risk factors and outcome of placenta previa. Arch Gynecol Obstet 284:47–51.

36. National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Antenatal Care for Uncomplicated Pregnancies. Clinical Guideline 62. Manhester: NICE. 2017.

37. UK National Screening Committee. Screening for Vasa Praevia in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy. External Review Against Programme Appraisal Criteria for the UK National Screening Committee (UK NSC). London, UK NSC. 2017.

38. Dashe JS, McIntire DD, Ramus RM, Santos-Ramos R, Twickler DM. 2002. Persistence of placenta previa according to gestational age at ultrasound detection. Obstet Gynecol 99:692–7.

39. Cho JY, Lee YH, Moon MH, Lee JH. 2008. Difference in migration of placenta according to the location and type of placenta previa. J Clin Ultrasound 36:79–84.

40. Eichelberger KY, Haeri S, Kessler DC, Swartz A, Herring A, Wolfe HM. 2011. Placenta previa in the second trimester: sonographic and clinical factors associated with its resolution. Am J Perinatol 28:735–9.

41. Copland JA, Craw SM, Herbison P. 2012. Low-lying placenta: who should be recalled for a follow-up scan? J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 56:158–62.

42. Robinson AJ, Muller PR, Allan R, Ross R, Baghurst PA, Keirse MJ. 2012. Precise mid-trimester placenta localisation: does it predict adverse outcomes? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 52:156–60.

43. Lal AK, Nyholm J, Wax J, Rose CH, Watson WJ. 2012. Resolution of complete placenta previa: does prior cesarean delivery matter? J Ultrasound Med 31:577–80.

44. Kapoor S, Thomas JT, Petersen SG, Gardener GJ. 2014. Is the third trimester repeat ultrasound scan for placental localisation needed if the placenta is low lying but clear of the os at the mid-trimester morphology scan? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 54:428–32.

45. Quant HS, Friedman AM, Wang E, Parry S, Schwartz N. 2014. Transabdominal ultrasonography as a screening test for second-trimester placenta previa. Obstet Gynecol 123:628–33.

46. Heller HT, Mullen KM, Gordon RW, Reiss RE, Benson CB. 2014. Outcomes of pregnancies with a low-lying placenta diagnosed on second-trimester sonography. J Ultrasound Med 33:691–6.

47. Kohari KS, Roman AS, Fox NS, Feinberg J, Saltzman DH, Klauser CK et al. 2012. Persistence of placenta previa in twin gestations based on gestational age at sonographic detection. J Ultrasound Med 31:985–9.

48. Sherman SJ, Carlson DE, Platt LD, Medearis AL. 1992. Transvaginal ultrasound: does it help in the diagnosis of placenta previa? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2:256–60.

49. Mustafa SA, Brizot ML, Carvalho MH, Watanabe L, Kahhale S, Zugaib M. 2002. Transvaginal ultrasonography in predicting placenta previa at delivery: a longitudinal study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 20:356–9.

50. Becker RH, Vonk R, Mende BC, Ragosch V, Entezami M. 2001. The relevance of placental location at 20-23 gestational weeks for prediction of placenta previa at delivery: evaluation of 8650 cases. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 17:496–501.

51. Oppenheimer L, Holmes P, Simpson N, Dabrowski A. 2001. Diagnosis of low-lying placenta: can migration in the third trimester predict outcome? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 18:100–2.

52. Taipale P, Hiilesmaa V, Ylöstalo P. 1998. Transvaginal ultrasonography at 18-23 weeks in predicting placenta praevia at delivery. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 12:422–5.

53. Lauria MR, Smith RS, Treadwell MC, Comstock CH, Kirk JS, Lee W et al. 1996. The use of second-trimester transvaginal sonography to predict placenta previa. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 8:337–40.

54. Smith RS, Lauria MR, Comstock CH, Treadwell MC, Kirk JS, Lee W et al. 1997. Transvaginal ultrasonography for all placentas that appear to be low-lying or over the internal cervical os. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 9:22–4.

55. Leerentveld RA, Gilberts EC, Arnold MJ, Wladimiroff JW. 1990. Accuracy and safety of transvaginal sonographic placental localization. Obstet Gynecol 76:759–62.

56. Conde-Agudelo A, Romero R. 2015. Predictive accuracy of changes in transvaginal sonographic cervical length over time for preterm birth: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 213:789–801.

57. Ghi T, Contro E, Martina T, Piva M, Morandi R, Orsini LF et al. 2009. Cervical length and risk of antepartum bleeding in women with complete placenta previa. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 33:209–12.

58. Zaitoun MM, El Behery MM, Abd El Hameed AA, Soliman BS. 2011. Does cervical length and the lower placental edge thickness measurement correlates with clinical outcome in cases of complete placenta previa? Arch Gynecol Obstet 284:867–73.

59. Mimura T, Hasegawa J, Nakamura M, Matsuoka R, Ichizuka K, Sekizawa A et al. 2011. Correlation between the cervical length and the amount of bleeding during cesarean section in placenta previa. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 37:830–5.

60. Sekiguchi A, Nakai A, Okuda N, Inde Y, Takeshita T. 2015. Consecutive cervical length measurements as a predictor of preterm cesarean section in complete placenta previa. J Clin Ultrasound 43:17–22.

61. Neilson JP. 2003. Interventions for suspected placenta praevia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD001998.

62. Wing DA, Paul RH, Millar LK. 1996. Management of the symptomatic placenta previa: a randomized, controlled trial of inpatient versus outpatient expectant management. Am J Obstet Gynecol 175:806–11.

63. Pivano A, Alessandrini M, Desbriere R, Agostini A, Opinel P, d’Ercole C et al. 2015. A score to predict the risk of emergency caesarean delivery in women with antepartum bleeding and placenta praevia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 195:173–6.

64. Lal AK, Hibbard JU. 2015. Placenta previa: an outcome-based cohort study in a contemporary obstetric population. Arch Gynecol Obstet 292:299–305.

65. Nørgaard LN, Pinborg A, Lidegaard Ø, Bergholt T. A Danish national cohort study on neonatal outcome in singleton pregnancies with placenta previa. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2012;91:546–51.

66. Roberts D, Brown J, Medley N, Dalziel SR. 2017. Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD004454.

67. Gyamfi-Bannerman C, Thom EA, Blackwell SC, Tita AT, Reddy UM, Saade GR, et al. 2016. NICHD Maternal–Fetal Medicine Units Network. Antenatal betamethasone for women at risk for late preterm delivery. N Engl J Med 374:1311–20.

68. Zlatnik MG, Little SE, Kohli P, Kaimal AJ, Stotland NE, Caughey AB. 2010. When should women with placenta previa be delivered? A decision analysis. J Reprod Med 55:373–81.

69. Bose DA, Assel BG, Hill JB, Chauhan SP. 2011. Maintenance tocolytics for preterm symptomatic placenta previa: a review. Am J Perinatol 28:45–50.

70. Verspyck E, de Vienne C, Muszynski C, Bubenheim M, Chanavaz-Lacheray I, Dreyfus M et al. 2017. Maintenance nifedipine therapy for preterm symptomatic placenta previa: A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PLoS One 23:e0173717.

71. American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. ACOG committee opinion no. 560: Medically indicated late-preterm and early-term deliveries. Obstet Gynecol 121:908–10. 2013.

72. Spong CY, Mercer BM, D’alton M, Kilpatrick S, Blackwell S, Saade G. 2011. Timing of indicated late-preterm and early-term birth. Obstet Gynecol 118:323–33.

73. Zlatnik MG, Cheng YW, Norton ME, Thiet MP, Caughey AB. 2007. Placenta previa and the risk of preterm delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 20:719–23.

74. Balayla J, Wo BL, Bedard MJ. 2015. A late-preterm, early-term stratified analysis of neonatal outcomes by gestational age in placenta previa: defining the optimal timing for delivery. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 28:1756–61.

75. Bhide A, Prefumo F, Moore J, Hollis B, Thilaganathan B. 2003. Placental edge to internal os distance in the late third trimester and mode of delivery in placenta praevia. BJOG 110:860–4.

76. Ghourab S. 2001. Third-trimester transvaginal ultrasonography in placenta previa: does the shape of the lower placental edge predict clinical outcome? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 18:103–8.

77. Saitoh M, Ishihara K, Sekiya T, Araki T. 2002. Anticipation of uterine bleeding in placenta previa based on vaginal sonographic evaluation. Gynecol Obstet Invest 54:37–42.

78. Taga A, Sato Y, Sakae C, Satake Y, Emoto I, Maruyama S et al. 2017. Planned vaginal delivery versus planned cesarean delivery in cases of low-lying placenta. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 30:618–22.

79. Vergani P, Ornaghi S, Pozzi I, Beretta P, Russo FM, Follesa I et al. 2009. Placenta previa: distance to internal os and mode of delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 201:266.e1–5.

80. Nakamura M, Hasegawa J, Matsuaka R, Mimura T, Ichizuka K, Sekizawa A et al. 2012. Amount of hemorrhage during vaginal delivery correlates with length from placental edge to external os incases with low-lying placenta whose length between placental edge and internal os was 1-2 cm. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 38:1041–5.

81. Al Wadi K, Schneider C, Burym C, Reid G, Hunt J, Menticoglou S. 2014. Evaluating the safety of labour in women with a placental edge 11 to 20 mm from the internal cervical Os. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 36:674–7.

82. Wortman AC, Twickler DM, McIntire DD, Dashe JS. 2016. Bleeding complications in pregnancies with low-lying placenta. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 29:1367–71.

83. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Caesarean Section. Consent Advice 7. London, RCOG. 2009.

84. Thomas J, Paranjothy S, editors. 2001. The National Sentinel Caesarean Section Audit Report. London, RCOG Press.

85. Baba Y, Matsubara S, Ohkuchi A, Usui R, Kuwata T, Suzuki H et al. 2014. Anterior placentation as a risk factor for massive hemorrhage during cesarean section in patients with placenta previa. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 40:1243–8.

86. Gibbins KJ, Einerson BD, Varner MW, Silver RM. 2018. Placenta previa and maternal haemorrhagic morbidity. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 31:494–9.

87. Mavrides E, Allard S, Chandraharan E, Collins P, Green L, Hunt BJ et al. 2016. Оn behalf of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Prevention and management of postpartum haemorrhage. BJOG 124:e106–49.

88. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Blood Transfusions in Obstetrics. Green-top Guideline 47. London, RCOG. 2015.

89. Madsen K, Grønbeck L, Rifbjerg Larsen C, Østergaard J, Bergholt T, Langhoff-Roos J et al. 2013. Educational strategies in performing cesarean section. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 92:256–63.

90. Pelosi MA, Apuzzio J, Fricchione D, Gowda VV. 1979. The “intra-abdominal version technique” for delivery of transverse lie by low-segment caesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135:1009–11.

91. Hong JY, Jee YS, Yoon HJ, Kim SM. 2003. Comparison of general and epidural anesthesia in elective cesarean section for placenta pevia totalis: maternal hemodynamics, blood loss and neonatal outcome. Int J Obstet Anesth 12:12–6.

92. Butwick AJ, Carvalho B, El-Sayed YY. 2014. Risk factors for obstetric morbidity in patients with uterine atony undergoing caesarean delivery. Br J Anaesth 113:661–8.

93. Goucher H, Wong CA, Patel SK, Toledo P. 2015. Cell salvage in obstetrics. Anesth Analg 121:465–8.

94. Morikawa M, Kuramoto A, Nakayama M, Oguchi H, Hasegawa M, Funakoshi T et al. 2015. Intraoperative red cell salvage during obstetric surgery in 50 Japanese women. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 128:256–9.

95. Verspyck E, Douysset X, Roman H, Marret S, Marpeau L. 2015. Transecting versus avoiding incision of the anterior placenta previa during cesarean delivery. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 128:44–7.

96. Zou L, Zhong S, Zhao Y, Zhu J, Chen L. 2010. Evaluation of “J”-shaped uterine incision during caesarean section in patients with placenta previa: a retrospective study. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 30:212–6.

97. Kumru P, Demirci O, Erdogdu E, Arısoy R, Ertekin AA, Tugrul S et al. 2013. The Bakri balloon for the management of postpartum hemorrhage in cases with placenta previa. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 167:167–70.

98. Beckmann MM, Chaplin J. 2014. Bakri balloon during cesarean delivery for placenta previa. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 124:118–22.

99. Cho HY, Park YW, Kim YH, Jung I, Kwon JY. 2015. Efficacy of intrauterine Bakri balloon tamponade in cesarean section for placenta previa patients. PLoS One 10:e0134282.

100. Maher MA, Abdelaziz A. 2017. Comparison between two management protocols for postpartum hemorrhage during cesarean section in placenta previa: Balloon protocol versus non-balloon protocol. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 43:447–55.

101. Soyama H, Miyamoto M, Sasa H, Ishibashi H, Yoshida M, Nakatsuka M et al. 2017. Effect of routine rapid insertion of Bakri balloon tamponade on reducing hemorrhage from placenta previa during and after cesarean section. Arch Gynecol Obstet 296:469–74.

102. Uygur D, Altun Ensari T, Ozgu-Erdinc AS, Dede H, Erkaya S, Danisman AN. 2014. Successful use of BT-Cath(«) balloon tamponade in the management of postpartum haemorrhage due to placenta previa. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 181:223–8.

103. Ishii T, Sawada K, Koyama S, Isobe A, Wakabayashi A, Takiuchi T et al. 2012. Balloon tamponade during cesarean section is useful for severe post-partum hemorrhage due to placenta previa. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 38:102–7.

104. B-Lynch C, Coker A, Lawal AH, Abu J, Cowen MJ. 1997. The B-Lynch surgical technique for the control of massive postpartum haemorrhage: an alternative to hysterectomy? Five cases reported. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104:372–5.

105. Yoong W, Ridout A, Memtsa M, Stavroulis A, Aref-Adib M, Ramsay-Marcelle Z et al. 2012. Application of uterine compression suture in association with intrauterine balloon tamponade (‘uterine sandwich’) for postpartum hemorrhage. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 91:147–51.

106. Inoue S, Masuyama H, Hiramatsu Y. 2014. Multi-Institutional Study Group of Transarterial Embolization for Massive Obstetric Haemorrhage in Chugoku & Shikoku Area Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Efficacy of transarterial embolisation in the management of post-partum haemorrhage and its impact on subsequent pregnancies. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 54: 541–5.

107. Broekman EA, Versteeg H, Vos LD, Dijksterhuis MG, Papatsonis DN. 2015. Temporary balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries to prevent massive hemorrhage during cesarean delivery among patients with placenta previa. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 128:118–21.

108. Sentilhes L, Gromez A, Clavier E, Resch B, Verspyck E, Marpeau L. 2010. Fertility and pregnancy following pelvic arterial embolisation for postpartum haemorrhage. BJOG 117:84–93.

109. Doumouchtsis SK, Nikolopoulos K, Talaulikar V, Krishna A, Arulkumaran S. 2014. Menstrual and fertility outcomes following the surgical management of postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review. BJOG 121:382–8.

110. Soro MP, Denys A, de Rham M, Baud D. 2017. Short and long term adverse outcomes after arterial embolisation for the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review. Eur Radiol 27:749–62.

111. Wu S, Kocherginsky M, Hibbard JU. 2005. Abnormal placentation: twenty-year analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:1458–61.

112. Silver RM, Landon MB, Rouse DJ, Leveno KJ, Spong CY, Thom EA, et al. 2006. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Maternal morbidity associated with multiple repeat cesarean deliveries. Obstet Gynecol 107:1226–32.

113. Fitzpatrick KE, Sellers S, Spark P, Kurinczuk JJ, Brocklehurst P, Knight M. 2012. Incidence and risk factors for placenta accreta/increta/ percreta in the UK: a national case-control study. PLoS One 7:e52893.

114. Morlando M, Sarno L, Napolitano R, Capone A, Tessitore G, Maruotti GM et al. 2013. Placenta accreta: incidence and risk factors in an area with a particularly high rate of cesarean section. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 92:457–60.

115. Cook JR, Jarvis S, Knight M, Dhanjal MK. 2013. Multiple repeat caesarean section in the UK: incidence and consequences to mother and child. A national, prospective, cohort study. BJOG 120:85–91.

116. Higgins MF, Monteith C, Foley M, O’Herlihy C. 2013. Real increasing incidence of hysterectomy for placenta accreta following previous caesarean section. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 171:54–6.

117. Eshkoli T, Weintraub AY, Sergienko R, Sheiner E. 2013. Placenta accreta: risk factors, perinatal outcomes, and consequences for subsequent births. Am J Obstet Gynecol 208:219.e1–7.

118. Kamara M, Henderson JJ, Doherty DA, Dickinson JE, Pennell CE. 2013. The risk of placenta accreta following primary elective caesarean delivery: a case-control study. BJOG 120:879–86.

119. Creanga AA, Bateman BT, Butwick AJ, Raleigh L, Maeda A, Kuklina E et al. 2015. Morbidity associated with cesarean delivery in the United States: is placenta accreta an increasingly important contributor? Am J Obstet Gynecol 213:384.e1–11.

120. Thurn L, Lindqvist PG, Jakobsson M, Colmorn LB, Klungsoyr K, Bjarnadottir RI et al. 2016. Abnormally invasive placenta-prevalence, risk factors and antenatal suspicion: results from a large population-based pregnancy cohort study in the Nordic countries. BJOG 123:1348–55.

121. Farquhar CM, Li Z, Lensen S, McLintock C, Pollock W, Peek MJ et al. 2017. Incidence, risk factors and perinatal outcomes for placenta accreta in Australia and New Zealand: a case-control study. BMJ Open 7:e017713.

122. Balayla J, Bondarenko HD. 2013. Placenta accreta and the risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. J Perinat Med 41:141–9.

123. Esh-Broder E, Ariel I, Abas-Bashir N, Bdolah Y, Celnikier DH. 2011. Placenta accreta is associated with IVF pregnancies: a retrospective chart review. BJOG 118:1084–9.

124. Ishihara O, Araki R, Kuwahara A, Itakura A, Saito H, Adamson GD. 2014. Impact of frozen-thawed single-blastocyst transfer on maternal and neonatal outcome: an analysis of 277,042 single-embryo transfer cycles from 2008 to 2010 in Japan. Fertil Steril 101:128–33.

125. Kaser DJ, Melamed A, Bormann CL, Myers DE, Missmer SA, Walsh BW et al. 2015. Cryopreserved embryo transfer is an independent risk factor for placenta accreta. Fertil Steril 103:1176–84 e2.

126. Ben Nagi J, Ofili-Yebovi D, Marsh M, Jurkovic D. 2005. First-trimester cesarean scar pregnancy evolving into placenta previa/accreta at term. J Ultrasound Med 24:1569–73.

127. Zosmer N, Fuller J, Shaikh H, Johns J, Ross JA. 2015. Natural history of early first-trimester pregnancies implanted in Cesarean scars. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 46:367–75.

128. Timor-Tritsch IE, Monteagudo A, Cali G, Palacios-Jaraquemada JM, Maymon R, Arslan AA et al. 2014. Cesarean scar pregnancy and early placenta accreta share common histology. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 43:383–95.

129. Jurkovic D, Knez J, Appiah A, Farahani L, Mavrelos D, Ross JA. 2016. Surgical treatment of Caesarean scar pregnancy: efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided suction curettage. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 47:511–7.

130. Cali G, Forlani F, Timor-Tritsch IE, Palacios-Jaraquemada J, Minneci G, D’Antonio F. 2017. Natural history of Caesarean scar pregnancy on prenatal ultrasound: the crossover sign. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 50:100–4.

131. Wright JD, Pri-Paz S, Herzog TJ, Shah M, Bonanno C, Lewin SN et al. 2011. Predictors of massive blood loss in women with placenta accreta. Am J Obstet Gynecol 205:38.e1–6.

132. Tikkanen M, Paavonen J, Loukovaara M, Stefanovic V. 2011. Antenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta leads to reduced blood loss. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 90:1140–6.

133. Chantraine F, Braun T, Gonser M, Henrich W, Tutschek B. 2013. Prenatal diagnosis of abnormally invasive placenta reduces maternal peripartum hemorrhage and morbidity. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 92:439–44.

134. Hall T, Wax JR, Lucas FL, Cartin A, Jones M, Pinette MG. 2014. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of placenta accreta: Impact on maternal and neonatal outcomes. J Clin Ultrasound 42:449–55.

135. Silver RM, Fox KA, Barton JR, Abuhamad AZ, Simhan H, Huls CK et al. 2015. Center of excellence for placenta accreta. Am J Obstet Gynecol 212:561–8.

136. Bailit JL, Grobman WA, Rice MM, Reddy UM, Wapner RJ, Varner MW et al. 2015. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units (MFMU) Network. Morbidly adherent placenta treatments and outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 125:683–9.

137. Bowman ZS, Eller AG, Kennedy AM, Richards DS, Winter TC 3-rd, Woodward PJ et al. 2014. Accuracy of ultrasound for the prediction of placenta accreta. Am J Obstet Gynecol 211:177.e1–7.

138. Smulian JC, Pascual AL, Hesham H, Qureshey E, Bijoy Thomas M, Depuy AM et al. 2017. Invasive placental disease: the impact of a multidisciplinary team approach to management. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 30:1423–7.

139. Cal`ı G, Giambanco L, Puccio G, Forlani F. 2013. Morbidly adherent placenta: evaluation of ultrasound diagnostic criteria and differentiation of placenta accreta from percreta. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 41:406–12.

140. Collins SL, Ashcroft A, Braun T, Calda P, Langhoff-Ross J, Morel O, et al.; European Working Group on Abnormally Invasive Placenta (EW-AIP). Proposal for standardized ultrasound descriptors of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP). Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2016;47:271–5.

141. Alfirevic Z, Tang AW, Collins SL, Robson SC, Palacios-Jaraquemada J. 2016. Ad-hoc International AIP Expert Group. Pro forma for ultrasound reporting in suspected abnormally invasive placenta (AIP): an international consensus. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 47: 276–8.

142. D’Antonio F, Iacovella C, Bhide A. 2013. Prenatal identification of invasive placentation using ultrasound: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 42:509–17.

143. Jauniaux E, Bhide A. 2017. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis and outcome of placenta previa accreta after cesarean delivery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 217:27–36.

144. Chantraine F, Nisolle M, Petit P, Schaaps JP, Foidart JM. 2012. Individual decisions in placenta increta and percreta: a case series. J Perinat Med 40:265–70.

145. Palacios-Jaraquemada JM, Bruno CH, Martın E. 2013. MRI in the diagnosis and surgical management of abnormal placentation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 92:392–7.

146. Rahaim NS, Whitby EH. 2015. The MRI features of placental adhesion disorder and their diagnostic significance: systematic review. Clin Radiol 70:917–25.

147. Meng X, Xie L, Song W. 2013. Comparing the diagnostic value of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for placenta accreta: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Med Biol 39:1958–65.

148. D’Antonio F, Iacovella C, Palacios-Jaraquemada J, Bruno CH, Manzoli L, Bhide A. 2014. Prenatal identification of invasive placentation using magnetic resonance imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 44:8–16.

149. Millischer AE, Salomon LJ, Porcher R, Brasseur-Daudruy M, Gourdier AL, Hornoy P et al. 2017. Magnetic resonance imaging for abnormally invasive placenta: the added value of intravenous gadolinium injection. BJOG 124:88–95.

150. Hornemann A, Bohlmann MK, Diedrich K, Kavallaris A, Kehl S, Kelling K et al. 2011. Spontaneous uterine rupture at the 21st week of gestation caused by placenta percreta. Arch Gynecol Obstet 284:875–8.

151. Dew L, Harris S, Yost N, Magee K, dePrisco G. 2015. Second trimester placenta percreta presenting as acute abdomen. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 28:38–40.

152. Sun JN, Zhang BL, Yu HY, Zhang Q. 2016. Spontaneous uterine rupture due to placenta percreta during pregnancy. Am J Emerg Med 34:1918.e1–3.

153. Abbas F, Talati J, Wasti S, Akram S, Ghaffar S, Qureshi R. 2000. Placenta percreta with bladder invasion as a cause of life threatening hemorrhage. J Urol 164:1270–4.

154. Wagaskar VG, Daga SO, Patwardhan SK. 2015. Placenta percreta presenting with delayed haematuria. J Clin Diagn Res 9:PD01–2.

155. Brown JV 3rd, Epstein HD, Laflamme LA, Goldstein BH. 2016. First-trimester placenta percreta with urinary bladder invasion. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 132:102–3.

156. Vinograd A, Wainstock T, Mazor M, Beer-Weisel R, Klaitman V, Dukler D et al. 2015. Placenta accreta is an independent risk factor for late pre-term birth and perinatal mortality. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 28:1381–7.

157. Mehrabadi A, Hutcheon JA, Liu S, Bartholomew S, Kramer MS, Liston RM, et al. 2015. Maternal Health Study Group of Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System (Public Health Agency of Canada). Contribution of placenta accreta to the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol 125:814–21.

158. Jolley JA, Nageotte MP, Wing DA, Shrivastava VK. 2012. Management of placenta accreta: a survey of Maternal-Fetal Medicine practitioners. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 25:756–60.

159. Esakoff TF, Handler SJ, Granados JM, Caughey AB. 2012. PAMUS: placenta accreta management across the United States. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 25:761–5.

160. Wright JD, Silver RM, Bonanno C, Gaddipati S, Lu YS, Simpson LL et al. 2013. Practice patterns and knowledge of obstetricians and gynecologists regarding placenta accreta. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 26:1602–9.

161. Cal M, Ayres-de-Campos D, Jauniaux E. 2018. International survey of practices used in the diagnosis and management of placenta accreta spectrum disorders. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 140:307–11.

162. Eller AG, Bennett MA, Sharshiner M, Masheter C, Soisson AP, Dodson M et al. 2011. Maternal morbidity in cases of placenta accreta managed by a multidisciplinary care team compared with standard obstetric care. Obstet Gynecol 117:331–7.

163. Al-Khan A, Gupta V, Illsley NP, Mannion C, Koenig C, Bogomol A et al. 2014. Maternal and fetal outcomes in placenta accreta after institution of team-managed care. Reprod Sci 21:761–71.

164. Publications Committee, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Belfort MA. 2010. Placenta accreta. Am J Obstet Gynecol 203:430–9.

165. Committee on Obstetric Practice. Committee opinion no. 529: placenta accreta. Obstet Gynecol 120:207–11. 2012.

166. Belfort MA. 2011. Indicated preterm birth for placenta accreta. Semin Perinatol 35:252–6.

167. Robinson BK, Grobman WA. 2010. Effectiveness of timing strategies for delivery of individuals with placenta previa and accreta. Obstet Gynecol 116:835–42.

168. Seet EL, Kay HH, Wu S, Terplan M. 2012. Placenta accreta: depth of invasion and neonatal outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 25:2042–5.

169. Rac MW, Wells CE, Twickler DM, Moschos E, McIntire DD, Dashe JS. 2015. Placenta accreta and vaginal bleeding according to gestational age at delivery. Obstet Gynecol 125:808–13.

170. Perlman NC, Little SE, Thomas A, Cantonwine DE, Carusi DA. 2017. Patient selection for later delivery timing with suspected previa-accreta. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 96:1021–8.

171. Green L, Knight M, Seeney FM, Hopkinson C, Collins PW, Collis RE et al. 2016. The epidemiology and outcomes of women with postpartum haemorrhage requiring massive transfusion with eight or more units of red cells: a national cross-sectional study. BJOG 123:2164–70.

172. Brookfield KF, Goodnough LT, Lyell DJ, Butwick AJ. 2014. Perioperative and transfusion outcomes in women undergoing cesarean hysterectomy for abnormal placentation. Transfusion 54:1530–6.

173. Paterson-Brown S, Singh C. 2010. Developing a care bundle for the management of suspected placenta accreta. The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 12:21–7.

174. Knight M, Tuffnell D, Kenyon S, Shakespeare J, Gray R, Kurinczuk JJ, editors on behalf of MBRRACE-UK. 2015. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care. Surveillance of Maternal Deaths in the UK 2011-13 and Lessons Learned to Inform Maternity Care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2009-13. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford.

175. Paterson-Brown S, Bamber J, on behalf of the MBRRACE-UK haemorrhage chapter writing group. 2014. Prevention and treatment of haemorrhage. In Knight M, Kenyon S, Brocklehurst P, Neilson J, Shakespeare J, Kurinczuk JJ editors, on behalf of MBRRACE-UK. Saving Lives, Improving Mothers’ Care – Lessons Learned to Inform Future Maternity Care from the UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity 2009–12. Oxford: National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford..

176. Brennan DJ, Schulze B, Chetty N, Crandon A, Petersen SG, Gardener G et al. 2015. Surgical management of abnormally invasive placenta: a retrospective cohort study demonstrating the benefits of a standardized operative approach. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 94:1380–6.

177. Eller AG, Porter TF, Soisson P, Silver RM. 2009. Optimal management strategies for placenta accreta. BJOG 116:648–54.

178. Hudon L, Belfort MA, Broome DR. 1998. Diagnosis and management of placenta percreta: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 53:509–17.

179. Rossetti D, Vitale SG, Bogani G, Rapisarda AM, Gulino FA, Frigerio L. 2015. Usefulness of vessel-sealing devices for peripartum hysterectomy: a retrospective cohort study. Updates Surg 67:301–4.

180. Steins Bisschop CN, Schaap TP, Vogelvang TE, Scholten PC. 2011. Invasive placentation and uterus preserving treatment modalities: a systematic review. Arch Gynecol Obstet 284:491–502.

181. Mei J, Wang Y, Zou B, Hou Y, Ma T, Chen M et al. 2015. Systematic review of uterus-preserving treatment modalities for abnormally invasive placenta. J Obstet Gynaecol 35:777–82.

182. TeixidorVi~nas M, Belli AM, Arulkumaran S, Chandraharan E. 2015. Prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and hysterectomy in patients with morbidly adherent placenta: a cohort study comparing outcomes before and after introduction of the Triple-P procedure. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 46:350–5.

183. El Tahan M, Carrillo AP, Moore J, Chandraharan E. 2018. Predictors of postoperative hospitalisation in women who underwent the Triple-P Procedure for abnormal invasion of the placenta. J Obstet Gynaecol 38:71–3.

184. Shazly SA, Badee AY, Ali MK. 2012. The use of multiple 8 compression suturing as a novel procedure to preserve fertility in patients with placenta accreta: case series. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 52:395–9.

185. Huang G, Zhou R, Hu Y. 2014. A new suture technique for cesarean delivery complicated by hemorrhage in cases of placenta previa accreta. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 124:262–3.

186. Kaplano˘glu M, Kaplano˘glu DK, Koyuncu O. 2015. A different approach to placenta previa accreta: intrauterine gauze compress combined B-Lynch uterine compression suture. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 42:53–6.

187. El Gelany SA, Abdelraheim AR, Mohammed MM, Gad El-Rab MT, Yousef AM, Ibrahim EM et al. 2015. The cervix as a natural tamponade in postpartum hemorrhage caused by placenta previa and placenta previa accreta: a prospective study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 15:295.

188. Tam Tam KB, Dozier J, Martin JN Jr. 2012. Approaches to reduce urinary tract injury during management of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta: a systematic review. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 25:329–34.

189. Grace Tan SE, Jobling TW, Wallace EM, McNeilage LJ, Manolitsas T, Hodges RJ. 2013. Surgical management of placenta accreta: a 10-year experience. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 92:445–50.

190. Woldu SL, Ordonez MA, Devine PC, Wright JD. 2014. Urologic considerations of placenta accreta: a contemporary tertiary care institutional experience. Urol Int 93:74–9.

191. Norris BL, Everaerts W, Posma E, Murphy DG, Umstad MP, Costello AJ et al. 2016. The urologist’s role in multidisciplinary management of placenta percreta. BJU Int 117:961–5.

192. Matsubara S, Kuwata T, Usui R, Watanabe T, Izumi A, Ohkuchi A et al. 2013. Important surgical measures and techniques at cesarean hysterectomy for placenta previa accreta. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 92:372–7.

193. Shabana A, Fawzy M, Refaie W. 2015. Conservative management of placenta percreta: a stepwise approach. Arch Gynecol Obstet 291:993–8.

194. ClausenC,Lo€nnL,Langhoff-RoosJ. 2014. Management of placenta percreta: a review of published cases. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 93:138–43.

195. Sentilhes L, Ambroselli C, Kayem G, Provansal M, Fernandez H, Perrotin F et al. 2010. Maternal outcome after conservative treatment of placenta accreta. Obstet Gynecol 115:526–34.

196. Fox KA, Shamshirsaz AA, Carusi D, Secord AA, Lee P, Turan OM et al. 2015. Conservative management of morbidly adherent placenta: expert review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 213:755–60.

197. Lin K, Qin J, Xu K, Hu W, Lin J. 2015. Methotrexate management for placenta accreta: a prospective study. Arch Gynecol Obstet 291:1259–64.

198. Legendre G, Zoulovits FJ, Kinn J, Senthiles L, Fernandez H. 2014. Conservative management of placenta accreta: hysteroscopic resection of retained tissues. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 21:910–3.

199. Mazzon I, Favilli A, Grasso M, Horvath S, Gerli S. 2016. Is the cold loop hysteroscopic technique a myometrial sparing treatment for placenta accreta residuals in a puerperal uterus? J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 29:1613–6.

200. Bai Y, Luo X, Li Q, Yin N, Fu X, Zhang H et al. 2016. High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of placenta accreta after vaginal delivery: a preliminary study. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 47:492–8.

201. Judy AE, Lyell DJ, Druzin ML, Dorigo O. 2015. Disseminated intravascular coagulation complicating the conservative management of placenta percreta. Obstet Gynecol 126:1016–8.

202. Teixidor Viñas M, Chandraharan E, Moneta MV, Belli AM. 2014. The role of interventional radiology in reducing haemorrhage and hysterectomy following caesarean section for morbidly adherent placenta. Clin Radiol 69:e345–51.

203. Bouvier A, Sentilhes L, Thouveny F, Bouet PE, Gillard P, Willoteaux S et al. 2012. Planned caesarean in the interventional radiology cath lab to enable immediate uterine artery embolization for the conservative treatment of placenta accreta. Clin Radiol 67:1089–94.

204. Dilauro MD, Dason S, Athreya S. 2012. Prophylactic balloon occlusion of internal iliac arteries in women with placenta accreta: literature review and analysis. Clin Radiol 67:515–20.

205. Clausen C, Stensballe J, Albrechtsen CK, Hansen MA, Lo€nn L, Langhoff-Roos J. 2013. Balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries in the multidisciplinary management of placenta percreta. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 92:386–91.

206. D’Souza DL, Kingdom JC, Amsalem H, Beecroft JR, Windrim RC, Kachura JR. 2015. Conservative management of invasive placenta using combined prophylactic internal iliac artery balloon occlusion and immediate postoperative uterine artery embolization. Can Assoc Radiol J 66:179–84.

207. Chou MM, Kung HF, Hwang JI, Chen WC, Tseng JJ. 2015. Temporary prophylactic intravascular balloon occlusion of the common iliac arteries before cesarean hysterectomy for controlling operative blood loss in abnormal placentation. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 54:493–8.

208. Duan XH, Wang YL, Han XW, Chen ZM, Chu QJ, Wang L et al. 2015. Caesarean section combined with temporary aortic balloon occlusion followed by uterine artery embolisation for the management of placenta accreta. Clin Radiol 70:932–7.

209. Wei X, Zhang J, Chu Q, Du Y, Xing N, Xu X et al. 2016. Prophylactic abdominal aorta balloon occlusion during caesarean section: a retrospective case series. Int J Obstet Anesth 27:3–8.

210. Wu Q, Liu Z, Zhao X, Liu C, Wang Y, Chu Q et al. 2016. Outcome of Pregnancies After Balloon Occlusion of the Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta During Caesarean in 230 Patients With Placenta Praevia Accreta. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 39:1573–9.

211. Xie L, Wang Y, Luo FY, Man YC, Zhao XL. 2017. Prophylactic use of an infrarenal abdominal aorta balloon catheter in pregnancies complicated by placenta accreta. J Obstet Gynecol 37:557–61.

212. Wang YL, Duan XH, Han XW, Wang L, Zhao XL, Chen ZM et al. 2017. Comparison of temporary abdominal aortic occlusion with internal iliac artery occlusion for patients with placenta accreta – a non-randomised prospective study. Vasa 46:53–7.

213. Ikeda T, Sameshima H, Kawaguchi H, Yamauchi N, Ikenoue T. 2005. Tourniquet technique prevents profuse blood loss in placenta accreta cesarean section. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 31:27–31.

214. Meng JL, Gong WY, Wang S, Ni XJ, Zuo CT, Gu YZ. 2017. Two-tourniquet sequential blocking as a simple intervention for hemorrhage during cesarean delivery for placenta previa accreta. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 138:361–2.

215. Iwata A, Murayama Y, Itakura A, Baba K, Seki H, Takeda S. 2010. Limitations of internal iliac artery ligation for the reduction of intraoperative hemorrhage during cesarean hysterectomy in cases of placenta previa accreta. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 36:254–9.

216. Bishop S, Butler K, Monaghan S, Chan K, Murphy G, Edozien L. 2011. Multiple complications following the use of prophylactic internal iliac artery balloon catheterisation in a patient with placenta percreta. Int J Obstet Anesth 20:70–3.

217. Gagnon J, Boucher L, Kaufman I, Brown R, Moore A. 2013. Iliac artery rupture related to balloon insertion for placenta accreta causing maternal hemorrhage and neonatal compromise. Can J Anaesth 60:1212–7.

218. Teare J, Evans E, Belli A, Wendler R. 2014. Sciatic nerve ischaemia after iliac artery occlusion balloon catheter placement for placenta percreta. Int J Obstet Anesth 23:178–81.

219. Matsueda S, Hidaka N, Kondo Y, Fujiwara A, Fukushima K, Kato K. 2015. External iliac artery thrombosis after common iliac artery balloon occlusion during cesarean hysterectomy for placenta accreta in cervico-isthmic pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 41:1826–30.

220. Salim R, Chulski A, Romano S, Garmi G, Rudin M, Shalev E. 2015. Precesarean prophylactic balloon catheters for suspected placenta accreta: A randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 126:1022–8.