• Influence of a type of feeding on the zinc’s level and the physical development of infants
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Influence of a type of feeding on the zinc’s level and the physical development of infants

SOVREMENNAYA PEDIATRIYA.2018.8(96):55-60; doi 10.15574/SP.2018.96.55

Frolova T. V., Amash A. G.
Kharkiv National Medical University, Ukraine

The charcter of the infant,s diet has a significant impact on their mineral profile. It is known zinc,s levels can be changed during life: it increases physiologically in 3 month children in comparing with its birth rates and gradually decreases by the end of the first year of life. In the future, the tendency of reducing continues to a deficiency of this essential trace element in the elderly age. However, there is no data of changes of infat,s mineral profile that are depended on the level of physical development, type of feeding and characteristics or time introduction of complementary foods. All of the above determined the relevance of this research.

Aim: to study dynamics of zinc levels indicators in infants, depending on the type of feeding, the characteristics of the complementary food,s introduction and the physical development.

Materials and methods: 147 children aged from 5 months to 1 year were examined who received various types of feeding and various complementary foods, which were introduced at different times. The study was conducted in two stages: Stage 1 — at the age of 5 months; Stage 2 — at the age of 1 year. The children were divided into groups: Group I — 52 children who were breastfed and received supplements from 6 months of age; Group II — 17 children who were partially breastfed with an amount of breast milk less than 50% per day and received supplements from 5 months of life; Group III — 25 children who received partial breastfeeding with more than 50% of breast milk in the daily diet and supplements from 6 months of age; Group IV — 26 children who were bottle-fed and received supplements from 5 months of age; Group V — 24 children who were bottle-fed and received supplements from 6 months of age. Zinc levels were determined in the hair by spectrometry using the Elvax Light apparatus ( Elvatekh, Ukraine, 2008). Physical development was assessed according to the Order of the Ministry of Health No. 149 (20 March 2008) and the WHO recommendations (2018). According to the calculation of the average value and the correlation and regression analysis in the Excell 2007 program, a statistical analysis of the results obtained was carried out.

The results of the studies indicate significant changes in the zinc level in children, depending on the type of feeding and the characteristics of the introduction of complementary foods. It was established that the level of Zn in children of the V group — 8.771%, IV group — 4.946%, I group — 3.1%, III group — 2.329%, while in children of the II group — 0.928%. When examined in 1 year of life, the zinc level in children of all groups increased significantly: in children of group V — 36.266%, group IV — 5.295%, group I — 40.524%, group III — 36.532%, and in group II — 5.553% (p <0.05% respectively). Established a clear connection between the zinc,s indicators in children who received various types of feeding, requires further research in this direction in order to substantiate and develop predictive and preventive measures for the development of microelement homeostasis disorders of children.

Conclusions: 1. There is a connection between the zinc,s level and the types of feeding, the period of introduction and the variety of complementary foods in infants. 2. In the five-month boys who received artificialfeeding, the indicators of zinc levels were significantly higher compared with children who were breast and mixed-fed. 3. In children, who received supplements from 6 months of life, in the repeated research, there was a significant increase in zinc levels compared to children who were given supplements from 5 months. 4. At the second stage of the research, it was found that the boys in all types of feeding and different introductions of complementary foods had a higher level of zinc compared to its performance in girls. 5. There is no dependence between the level of zinc and the level of physical development of the infants.

Key words: physical development; feeding; infants; zinc; complementary feeding; hair spectrometry.

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Article received: Jul 18, 2018. Accepted for publication: Dec 10, 2018.