• The importance of vitamin D in maternal and child health: a global perspective

The importance of vitamin D in maternal and child health: a global perspective

HEALTH OF WOMAN. 2018.2(128):109–117

M Fiscaletti, P Stewart  and CF Munns
Public Health Reviews (2017) 38:19 DOI 10.1186/s40985-017-0066-3
Adapted – S.A. Shurpyak

REFERENCES

1. Munns CF, Shaw N, Kiely M, Specker BL, Thacher TD, Ozono K, Michigami T, Tiosano D, Mughal MZ, Makitie O et al. 2016. Global consensus recommendations on prevention and management of nutritional rickets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 101(2):394–415.

2. Pettifor JM. Nutritonal rickets. In: Glorieux FH, Pettifor JM, H J, editors. Pediatric bone: biology and diseases. Second ed. Londong, UK: Academic Press. 2012.

3. Maiya S, Sullivan I, Allgrove J, Yates R, Malone M, Brain C, Archer N, Mok Q, Daubeney P, Tulloh R et al. 2008. Hypocalcaemia and vitamin D deficiency: an important, but preventable, cause of life-threatening infant heart failure. Heart. 94(5):581–4. Epub 2007 Aug 2009.

4. Elidrissy AT, Alharbi KM, Mufid M, Almezeni I. 2017. Rachitic hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy in an infant. J Saudi Heart Assoc 29(2):143-147. doi: 110.1016/j.jsha.2016.1005.1001. Epub 2016 Jun 1011.

5. Brown J, Nunez S, Russell M, Spurney C. 2009. Hypocalcemic rickets and dilated cardiomyopathy: case reports and review of literature. Pediatr Cardiol. 30(6):818–23.

6. Price DI, Stanford LC Jr, Braden DS, Ebeid MR, Smith JC. 2003. Hypocalcemic rickets: an unusual cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. Pediatr Cardiol. 24(5):510–2.

7. Yilmaz O, Olgun H, Ciftel M, Kilic O, Kartal I, Iskenderoglu NY, Laloglu F, Ceviz N: Dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to rickets-related hypocalcaemia: eight case reports and a review of the literature. Cardiol Young 2015, 25(2):261-266. doi: 210.1017/S1047951113002023. Epub 1047951113002013 Dec 1047951113002017.

8. Verma S, Khadwal A, Chopra K, Rohit M, Singhi S: Hypocalcemia nutritional rickets: a curable cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. J Trop Pediatr 2011, 57(2):126-128. doi: 110.1093/tropej/fmq1044. Epub 2010 Jun 1015.

9. Orbak Z, Karacan M, Doneray H, Karakelleoglu C. 2007. Congenital rickets presenting with hypocalcaemic seizures. West Indian Med J. 56(4):364–7.

10. Ahmed I, Atiq M, Iqbal J, Khurshid M, Whittaker P. 1995. Vitamin D deficiency rickets in breast-fed infants presenting with hypocalcaemic seizures. Acta Paediatr. 84(8):941–2.

11. Ward LM, Gaboury I, Ladhani M, Zlotkin S. 2007. Vitamin D-deficiency rickets among children in Canada. CMAJ. 177(2):161–6.

12. Wagner CL, Greer FR. 2008. Section on Breastfeeding and Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 122(5):1142–52.

13. Braegger C, Campoy C, Colomb V, Decsi T et al. 2013. Vitamin D in the healthy European paediatric population. JPGN. 56:692–701.

14. WHO. Guideline: vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2012.

15. Golden NH, Abrams SA. 2014. Committee on Nutrition. Optimizing bone health in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 134(4):e1229–43.

16. Misra M, Pacaud D, Petryk A et al. 2008. Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics. 122:398–417.

17. Prentice A. 2016.  Vitamin D and health. In. Edited by Nutrition SACo. England: Public Health England.

18. Ben-Shoshan M. 2012. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and challenges in developing global vitamin D fortification and supplementation policy in adults. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 82(4):237–59.

19. Manson JE, Brannon PM, Rosen CJ, Taylor CL. 2016. Vitamin D deficiency—is there really a pandemic? N Engl J Med. 375:19.

20. Shah D, Gupta P. 2015. Vitamin D deficiency: is the pandemic for real? Indian J Community Med. 40(4):215–7.

21. Ferrari R, Prosser C. 2016. Testing vitamin D levels and choosing wisely. JAMA Intern Med. 176(7):1019–20.

22. Rajakumar K. 2003. Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective. Pediatrics. 112(2):e132–5.

23. Holick MF. 2006. Resurrection of vitamin D deficiency and rickets. J Clin Invest. 116(8):2062–72.

24. Cesarean Section – A Brief History. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/cesarean/part3.html

25. Holick MF. 2010. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: a forgotten hormone important for health. Public Health Rev. 32(1):267–83.

26. Tulchinsky TH. 2010. Micronutrient deficiency conditions: global health issues. Public Health Reviews 32(1):243–55.

27. Kazemi A, Sharifi F, Jafari N, Mousavinasab N. 2009. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in an Iranian population. J Women’s Health (Larchmt). 18(6):835–9.

28. Dawodu A, Agarwal M, Sankarankutty M, Hardy D, Kochiyil J, Badrinath P. 2005. Higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in mothers of rachitic than nonrachitic children. J Pediatr. 147:109–11.

29. Rabbani A, Alavian SM, Motlagh ME et al. 2009. Vitamin D insufficiency among children and adolescents living in Tehran. Iran J Trop Pediatr. 55:189–91.

30. Thacher TD, Fischer PR, Pettifor JM, Lawson JO, Isichei CO, Reading JC, Chan GM. 1999. A comparison of calcium, vitamin D, or both for nutritional rickets in Nigerian children. N Engl J Med. 341(8):563–8.

31. Oginni LM, Worsfold M, Oyelami OA, Sharp CA, Powell DE, Davie MW. 1996. Etiology of rickets in Nigerian children. J Pediatr. 128(5 Pt 1):692–4.

32. Kreiter SR, Schwartz RP, Kirkman HN Jr, Charlton PA, Calikoglu AS, Davenport ML. 2000. Nutritional rickets in African American breast-fed infants. J Pediatr. 137(2):153–7.

33. Thacher TD, Fischer PR, Tebben PJ, Singh RJ, Cha SS, Maxson JA, Yawn BP. 2013. Increasing incidence of nutritional rickets: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Mayo Clin Proc. 88(2):176–83.

34. Beck-Nielsen SS, Brock-Jacobsen B, Gram J, Brixen K, Jensen TK. 2009. Incidence and prevalence of nutritional and hereditary rickets in southern Denmark. Eur J Endocrinol. 160(3):491–7.

35. Munns CF, Simm PJ, Rodda CP, Garnett SP, Zacharin MR, Ward LM, Geddes J, Cherian S, Zurynski Y, Cowell CT et al. 2012. Incidence of vitamin D deficiency rickets among Australian children: an Australian paediatric surveillance unit study. Med J Aust. 196(7):466–8.

36. Goldacre M, Hall N, Yeates DG. 2014. Hospitalisation for children with rickets in England: a historical perspective. Lancet. 383(9917):597–8.

37. Shaw NJ, Pal BR. 2002. Vitamin D deficiency in UK Asian families: activating a new concern. Arch Dis Child. 86(3):147–9.

38. Robinson PD, Hogler W, Craig ME, Verge CF, Walker JL, Piper AC, Woodhead HJ, Cowell CT, Ambler GR. 2006. The reemerging burden of rickets: a decade of experience from Sydney. Arch Dis Child. 91(7):564–8.

39. Emmerson AJB, Dockery K, Mughal MZ, Roberts SA, Tower CL, Berry JL. 2017. Vitamin D status of white pregnant women and infants at birth and 4 months in north West England: a cohort study. Matern Child Nutr. 18(10):12453.

40. Baker PN, Wheeler SJ, Sanders TA, Thomas JE, Hutchinson CJ, Clarke K, Berry JL, Jones RL, Seed PT, Poston L: A prospective study of micronutrient status in adolescent pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2009, 89(4):1114-1124. doi: 1110.3945/ajcn.2008.27097. Epub 22009 Feb 27025.

41. Molina PE. 2013.  Parathyroid gland and calcium and phosphate regulation. In: Endocrine physiology. Fourth ed. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.

42. Casado-Diaz A, Cuenca-Acevedo R, Navarro-Valverde C, Diaz-Molina C, Caballero-Villarraso J, Santiago-Mora R, Dorado G, Quesada-Gomez JM. 2013. Vitamin D status and the Cdx-2 polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor gene are determining factors of bone mineral density in young healthy postmenopausal women. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 136:187–9.

43. Bishop N, Fewtrell M, Harvey N. 2012. Metabolic bone disease in the neonatal period and its later sequelae. In: Glorieux FH, Pettifor JM, H J, editors. Pediatric bone: biology and diseases. Second ed. London: Academic Press.

44. Kovacs CS. 2011. Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 40(4):795–826.

45. Prentice A. 2008. Vitamin D deficiency: a global perspective. Nutr Rev. 66(10 Suppl 2):S153–64.

46. Kovacs CS. 2008. Vitamin D in pregnancy and lactation: maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes from human and animal studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 88(2):520s–8s.

47. Prentice A. 2012. Pregnancy and lactation. In: Glorieux FH, Pettifor JM, editors. Pediatric bone: biology and diseases. London H: Academic Press.

48. Wieland P, Fischer JA, Trechsel U, Roth HR, Vetter K, Schneider H, Huch A. 1980. Perinatal parathyroid hormone, vitamin D metabolites, and calcitonin in man. Am J Phys. 239(5):E385–90.

49. Agarwal S, Kovilam O, Agrawal DK. 2016, Aug. Vitamin D and its impact on maternal-fetal outcomes in pregnancy: a critical review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 24:0.

50. Harvey NC, Holroyd C, Ntani G, Javaid K, Cooper P, Moon R, Cole Z, Tinati T, Godfrey K, Dennison E et al. 2014. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess. 18(45):1–190.

51. Bener A, Al-Hamaq AO, Saleh NM. 2013. Association between vitamin D insufficiency and adverse pregnancy outcome: global comparisons. Int J Womens Health. 5:523–31.

52. Achkar M, Dodds L, Giguère Y, Forest JC, Armson BA, Woolcott C, Agellon S, Spencer A, Weiler HA. 2015. Vitamin D status in early pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 212(4):511. e511-517.

53. De-Regil LM, Palacios C, Lombardo LK, Peña-Rosas JP. 2016. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 14(1):CD008873. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008873.pub3.

54. Asemi Z, Samimi M, Tabassi Z, Shakeri H, Esmaillzadeh A. 2013. Vitamin D supplementation affects serum high-sensitivity C- reactive protein, insulin resistance, and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women. J Nutr. 143(9):1432–8.

55. Sablok A, Batra A, Thariani K et al. 2015. Supplementation of vitamin D in pregnancy and its correlation with feto- maternal outcome. Clin Endocrinol. 83(4):536–41.

56. Maghbooli Z, Hossein-Nezhad A, Karimi F et al. 2008. Correlation between vitamin D3 deficiency and insulin resistance in pregnancy. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 24(1):27–32.

57. Yap C, Cheung NW, Gunton JE, Athayde N, Munns CF, Duke A, McLean M. 2014. Vitamin D supplementation and the effects on glucose metabolism during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 37:1837–44.

58. Rodriguez A, García-Esteban R, Basterretxea M et al. 2015. Associations of maternal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration with pregnancy and birth outcomes. BJOG. 122(12):1695–704.

59. Sebastian A, Vijayaselvi R, Nandeibam Y, Natarajan M. 2015. A case control study to evaluate the association between primary cesarean section for dystocia and vitamin D deficiency. J Clin Diagn Res. 9(9):QC05–8.

60. Gernand AD, Klebanoff MA, Simhan HN, Bodnar LM. 2015. Maternal vitamin D status, prolonged labor, cesarean delivery and instrumental delivery in an era with a low cesarean rate. J Perinatol. 35(1):23–8.

61. Pagliardini L, Vigano P, Molgora M, Persico P, Salonia A, Vailati SH, Paffoni A, Somigliana E, Papaleo E, Candiani M. 2015. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in infertile women referring for assisted reproduction. Nutrients. 7(12):9972–84.

62. McGrath J. 2001. Does ‘imprinting’ with low prenatal vitamin D contribute to the risk of various adult disorders? Med Hypotheses. 56(3):367–71. 
 

63. IOM. Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. Washington, D.C.: The National Academic Press. 2011.

64. Kalra P, Das V, Agarwal A, Kumar M, Ramesh V, Bhatia E, Gupta S, Singh S, Saxena P, Bhatia V. 2012. Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on neonatal mineral homeostasis and anthropometry of the newborn and infant. Br J Nutr. 108(6):1052–8.

65. Brooke OG, Brown IR, Bone CD, Carter ND, Cleeve HJ, Maxwell JD, Robinson VP, Winder SM. 1980. Vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women: effects on calcium status and fetal growth. Br Med J. 280(6216):751–4.

66. Marya RK, Rathee S, Dua V, Sangwan K. 1988. Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on foetal growth. Indian J Med Res. 88:488–92.

67. Cockburn F, Belton NR, Purvis RJ, Giles MM, Brown JK, Turner TL, Wilkinson EM, Forfar JO, Barrie WJ, McKay GS et 
al. 1980. Maternal vitamin D intake and mineral metabolism in mothers and their newborn infants. Br Med J. 281(6232):11–4.

68. Delvin EE, Salle BL, Glorieux FH, Adeleine P, David LS. 1986. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: effect on neonatal calcium homeostasis. J Pediatr 109(2):328-334.

69. Hossain N, Kanani FH, Ramzan S, Kausar R. 2014. Obstetric and neonatal outcomes of maternal vitamin D supplementation: results of an open-label, randomized controlled trial of antenatal vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 99(7):2448–55.

70. Morales E, Rodriguez A, Valvi D, Iñiguez C et al. 2015. Deficit of vitamin D in pregnancy and growth and overweight in the offspring. J Obes Int. 39(1):61–8.

71. Mallet E, Gugi B, Brunelle P, Henocq A, Basuyau JP, Lemeur H. 1986. Vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy: a controlled trial of two methods. Obstet Gynecol. 68(3):300–4.

72. Yu CK, Sykes L, Sethi M, Teoh TG, Robinson S. 2009. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation during pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol. 70:685–90. 
 

73. Roth DE, Perumal N, Al Mahmud A, Baqui AH. 2013. Maternal vitamin D3 supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy: effects on infant growth in a longitudinal follow-up study in Bangladesh. J Pediatr. 163(6):1605–11.

74. Grant CC, Stewart AW, Scragg R, Milne T, Rowden J, Ekeroma A, Wall C, Mitchell EA, Crengle S, Trenholme A, Crane J, Camargo CA. 2014. Vitamin D During Pregnancy and Infancy and Infant Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration. Pediatrics. 133(1)e143–e153. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-2602.

75. Barrett H, McElduff A. 2010. Vitamin D and pregnancy: an old problem revisited. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 24(4):527–39.

76. Litonjua AA, Carey VJ, Laranjo N, Harshfield BJ, McElrath TF, O’Connor GT, Sandel M, Iverson RE, Jr, Lee- Paritz A, Strunk RC et al. 2016. Effect of prenatal supplementation with vitamin D on asthma or recurrent wheezing in offspring by age 3 years: the VDAART randomized clinical trial. JAMA 315(4):362-370. doi: 310.1001/jama.2015.18589.

77. Dawodu A, Davidson B, Woo JG, Peng YM, Ruiz-Palacios GM, de Lourdes GM, Morrow AL. 2015. Sun exposure and vitamin D supplementation in relation to vitamin D status of breastfeeding mothers and infants in the global exploration of human milk study. Nutrients. 7(2):1081–93.

78. Greer FR. 2001. Fat-soluble vitamin supplements for enterally fed preterm infants. Neonatal Netw. 20(5):7–11.

79. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Oestergaard MZ, Chou D, Moller AB, Narwal R, Adler A, Vera Garcia C, Rohde S, Say L et al. 2012. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of preterm birth rates in the year 2010 with time trends since 1990 for selected countries: a systematic analysis and implications. Lancet. 379(9832):2162–72.

80. Field DJ, Dorling JS, Manktelow BN, Draper ES. 2008. Survival of extremely premature babies in a geographically defined population: prospective cohort study of 1994-9 compared with 2000-5. BMJ. 336(7655):1221–3.

81. Hollis BW, Roos BA, Draper HH et al. 1981. Vitamin D and its metabolites in human and bovine milk. J Nutr. 111:1240–8.

82. Soliman A, Salama H, Alomar S, Shatla E, Ellithy K, Bedair E. 2013. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations of vitamin D deficiency in newborns presented with hypocalcemia. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 17(4):697–703.

83. Gross ML, Tenenbein M, Sellers EA. 2013. Severe vitamin D deficiency in 6 Canadian first nation formula-fed infants. Int J Cicumpolar Health 72:20244.

84. Hollis BW, Wagner CL. 2006. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy: an ongoing epidemic. Am J Clin Nutr. 84(2):273.

85. Lee JM, Smith JR, Philipp BL, Chen TC, Mathieu J, Holick MF. 2007. Vitamin D deficiency in a healthy group of mothers and newborn infants. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 46(1):42–4.

86. Nicolaidou P, Hatzistamatiou Z, Papadopoulou A, Kaleyias J, Floropoulou E, Lagona E, Tsagris V, Costalos C, Antsaklis A. 2006. Low vitamin D status in mother-newborn pairs in Greece. Calcif Tissue Int. 78(6):337–42.

87. Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP, Burckhardt P, Dawson-Hughes B, Eisman JA, El-Hajj Fuleihan G, Josse RG, Lips P, Morales-Torres J et al. 2009. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos Int. 20(11):1807–20.

88. Hilger J, Friedel A, Herr R, Rausch T, Roos F, Wahl DA, Pierroz DD, Weber P, Hoffmann K. 2014. A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide. Br J Nutr. 111(1):23–45.

89. Wahl DA, Cooper C, Ebeling PR, Eggersdorfer M, Hilger J, Hoffmann K, Josse R, Kanis JA, Mithal A, Pierroz DD et al. 2012. A global representation of vitamin D status in healthy populations. Arch Osteoporos. 7:155–72.

90. Hogler W, Munns CF. 2016. Rickets and osteomalacia: a call for action to protect immigrants and ethnic risk groups. Lancet Glob Health 4(4):e229–30.

91. Thacher TD, Pludowski P, Shaw NJ, Mughal MZ, Munns CF, Högler W. 2016. Nutritional rickets in immigrant and refugee children. Public Health Reviews 37(1):3.

92. Benitez-Aguirre PZ, Wood NJ, Biesheuvel C, Moreira C, Munns CF. 2009. The natural history of vitamin D deficiency in African refugees living in Sydney. Med J Aust. 190(8):426–8.

93. Misra M. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in children and adolescents. In: Uptodate, Post TW (Ed). Waltham: UpToDate; 2017.

94. Harel Z, Flanagan P, Forcier M, Harel D. 2011. Low vitamin D status among obese adolescents: prevalence and response to treatment. J Adolesc Health. 48(5):448–52.

95. Pazianas M, Butcher GP, Subhani JM, Finch PJ, Ang L, Collins C, Heaney RP, Zaidi M, Maxwell JD. 2005. Calcium absorption and bone mineral density in celiacs after long term treatment with gluten-free diet and adequate calcium intake. Osteoporos Int. 16(1):56–63.

96. Atapattu N, Shaw N, Hogler W. 2013. Relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone in the search for a biochemical definition of vitamin D deficiency in children. Pediatr Res. 74(5):552–6.

97. Kroll M, Bi C, Garber C, Kaufman H, Liu D, Caston-Balderrama A, Clarke N, Xie M, Reitz R, Suffin S et al. 2015. Temporal relationship between vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone in the United States. PLoS One. 10(3):e0118108.

98. Holick M. 2017. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 18(2):153–65.

99. Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, Aloia JF, Brannon PM, Clinton SK, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Gallagher JC, Gallo RL, Jones G et al. 2011. The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 96(1):53–8.

100. Committe, Opinion, #495. Vitamin D: screening and supplementation during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;118:197–8.

101. Nice Guideline: Vitamin D: increasing supplement use in at-risk group. In., vol. PH56. United Kingdom: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. 2014.

102. Braegger C, Campoy C, Colomb V, Decsi T, Domellof M, Fewtrell M, Hojsak I, Mihatsch W, Molgaard C, Shamir R et al. 2013. Vitamin D in the healthy European paediatric population. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 56(6):692–701.

103. Specker BL, Ho ML, Oestreich A, Yin TA, Shui QM, Chen XC, Tsang RC. 1992. Prospective study of vitamin D supplementation and rickets in China. J Pediatr. 120(5):733–9.

104. Beser E, Cakmakci T. 1994. Factors affecting the morbidity of vitamin D deficiency rickets and primary protection. East Afr Med J. 71(6):358–62.

105. Misra M, Pacaud D, Petryk A, Collett-Solberg PF, Kappy M. 2008. Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics. 122(2):398–417.

106. Canadian Paediatric Society. Vitamin D supplementation: recommendations for Canadian mothers and infants. Paediatr Child Health. 2007;12(7):583–98.

107. Calvo MS, Whiting SJ, Barton CN. 2005. Vitamin D intake: a global perspective of current status. J Nutr. 135(2):310–6.

108. Erkkola M, Nwaru BI, Viljakainen HT. 2011. Maternal vitamin D during pregnancy and its relation to immune-mediated diseases in the offspring. Vitam Horm. 86:239–60.

109. Uday S, Kongjonaj A, Tulchinsky T, Hogler W Variations in infant and childhood Vitamin D supplementation programs across Europe and factors influencing adherence. Endocrine Abstracts. 2016.  45:OC5.4.

110. Williamson S, Greene S. 2007. Rickets: prevention message is not getting through. BMJ. 334(7607):1288.

111. Ahmed SF, Franey C, McDevitt H, Somerville L, Butler S, Galloway P, Reynolds L, Shaikh MG, Wallace AM. 2011. Recent trends and clinical features of childhood vitamin D deficiency presenting to a children’s hospital in Glasgow. Arch Dis Child. 96(7):694–6.

112. Taylor JA, Geyer LJ, Feldman KW. 2010. Use of supplemental vitamin d among infants breastfed for prolonged periods. Pediatrics. 125(1):105–11.

113. Perrine CG, Sharma AJ, Jefferds ME, Serdula MK, Scanlon KS. 2010. Adherence to vitamin D recommendations among US infants. Pediatrics. 125(4):627–32.

114. Lande B, Andersen LF, Baerug A, Trygg KU, Lund-Larsen K, Veierod MB, Bjorneboe GE. 2003. Infant feeding practices and associated factors in the first six months of life: the Norwegian infant nutrition survey. Acta Paediatr. 92(2):152–61.

115. Dratva J, Merten S, Ackermann-Liebrich U. 2006. Vitamin D supplementation in Swiss infants. Swiss Med Wkly. 136(29–30):473–81.

116. Hollis BW, Wagner CL, Howard CR, Ebeling M, Shary JR, Smith PG, Taylor SN, Morella K, Lawrence RA, Hulsey TC. 2015. Maternal versus infant vitamin D supplementation during lactation: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 136(4):625-634. doi: 6https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015–1669.

117. Oberhelman SS, Meekins ME, Fischer PR, Lee BR, Singh RJ, Cha SS, Gardner BM, Pettifor JM, Croghan IT, Thacher TD. 2013. Maternal vitamin D supplementation to improve the vitamin D status of breast-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 88(12):1378-1387. doi: 1310.1016/j.mayocp.2013.1309.1012.

118. Cooper C, Harvey NC, Bishop NJ, Kennedy S, Papageorghiou AT, Schoenmakers I, Fraser R, Gandhi SV, Carr A, D’Angelo S et al. 2016. Maternal gestational vitamin D supplementation and offspring bone health (MAVIDOS): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 4(5):393–402.

119. Hollis BW, Johnson D, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Wagner CL. 2011. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: double- blind, randomized clinical trial of safety and effectiveness. J Bone Miner Res. 26(10):2341–57.

120. Dawodu A, Saadi HF, Bekdache G, Javed Y, Altaye M, Hollis BW. 2013. Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy in a population with endemic vitamin D deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 98(6):2337–46.

121. Zipitis CS, Markides GA, Swann IL. 2006. Vitamin D deficiency: prevention or treatment? Arch Dis Child. 91:1011–4.

122. Du X, Zhu K, Trube A, Zhang Q, Ma G, Hu X, Fraser DR, Greenfield H. 2004. School-milk intervention trial enhances growth and bone mineral accretion in Chinese girls aged 10-12 years in Beijing. Br J Nutr. 92(1):159–68.

123. Serra-Majem L. 2001. Vitamin and mineral intakes in European children. Is food fortification needed? Public Health Nutr. 4(1a):101–7.

124. Nowson CA, Margerison C. 2002. Vitamin D intake and vitamin D status of Australians. Med J Aust. 177(3):149–52.

125. Hayes A, Cashman KD. 2017. Food-based solutions for vitamin D deficiency: putting policy into practice and the key role for research. Nutr Soc. 2017:54–63.

126. Moy RJ, McGee E, Debelle GD, Mather I, Shaw NJ. 2012. Successful public health action to reduce the incidence of symptomatic vitamin D deficiency. Arch Dis Child. 97(11):952–4.

127. Grant WB. 2011. An estimate of the global reduction in mortality rates through doubling vitamin D levels. Eur J Clin Nutr. 65(9):1016–26.

128. Palacios C, Gonzalez L. 2014. Is vitamin D deficiency a major global public health problem? The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 144PA:138–45. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2013.11.003.

129. Wagner CL, McNeil RB, Johnson DD, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Robinson C, Hamilton SA, Hollis BW. 2013. Health 
characteristics and outcomes of two randomized vitamin D supplementation trials during pregnancy: a combined analysis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 136:313–20.