• Effects of soil pollution with heavy metals on the congenital malformations development in children

Effects of soil pollution with heavy metals on the congenital malformations development in children

PERINATOLOGY AND PEDIATRIC. UKRAINE. 2018.2(74):69-72; doi 10.15574/PP.2018.74.69

Vlasova О. V., Lastivka І. V.
HSEI «Bukovinian State Medical University», Chernivtsi, Ukraine

Objective: to determine the incidence and risk of congenital malformations in children whose mothers were born and lived in places with different geochemical characteristics in Chernivtsi.
Material and methods. A retrospective analysis of 226 genetic maps of children with congenital malformations who were born in maternity homes in Chernivtsi during 2004–2014 has been carried out. Two groups of observation depending on the geochemical characteristics of the places of birth and residence of mothers who had children with congenital malformations were created. The first group (I) included 166 children, whose mothers were born and lived in places at the places belonged to the territories polluted with heavy metals; the second one (II) involved 60 cases of birth in the families, living in the places which were classified as relatively clean from heavy metals.
Results. The risk of congenital heart disease in the zones of geochemical problems increased twice, it was reliable and amounted to RR = 2.17 (95% CI 1.84–2.55). The risk of multiple birth defects in children in Group I was higher compared to the RR in the comparison group and made up 1.48 (95% CI 1.2–1.7), and RR of the gastrointestinal defects was 1.45 (95% CI 1.04–1.99). The relative risk of the CNS and facial congenital defects development in children whose mothers lived in the territories polluted with heavy metals was 0.96 (95% CI 0.66–1.39) and 0.72 (95 % DI 0.45–1.15), respectively. It should be noted that in children from the comparison group there was a high risk of birth defects of the urogenital tract and musculoskeletal system — 1.47 (95% CI 0.78–2.76) and 1.48 (95% CI 1.2–1.7), respectively.
Conclusions. In case when mothers lived and gave birth in the places with geochemical problems, there was a significant risk of development of congenital heart disease, multiple developmental defects and gastrointestinal tract. In relatively clean areas malformations of the urinary and musculoskeletal systems were prevalent. In both comparison groups congenital malformations were prevalent in male children.
Key words: congenital malformations, newborns, heavy metals, soil.

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