• Effect of intakes of N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and early childhood on development, morbidity and immunity of infants in first year of life: cross-sectional study. 
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Effect of intakes of N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and early childhood on development, morbidity and immunity of infants in first year of life: cross-sectional study. 

SOVREMENNAYA PEDIATRIYA.2014.2(58):47-52; doi 10.15574/SP.2014.58.47 
 

Effect of intakes of N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and early childhood on development, morbidity and immunity of infants in first year of life: cross-sectional study. 
 

Marushko R. V.

SI «Institute of pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology of National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine», Kiev 

Background: At present, there are considered the efficient mechanisms existed by which diets high in n-3 LC PUFAs during pregnancy and early childhood may modulate the development of innative immune disorders and promote the adequate formation of immune system both on general and local levels. Early availability of n-3 LC PUFA could contribute to the normal growth and development, decrease risk factors of diseases or pathological disorders in infants. 
 

Goals: to assess the relationship between n-3 LCPUFAs intakes during pregnancy and postnatally and development, morbidity and immunity of infants in first year of life. 
 

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using interview method of 300 women, whose children reached the age of one year. Elaborated questionnaires were filled in by pediatricians throughout their daily working hours while attending the patients. Was conducted assessment of frequency of common diseases and disorders like respiratory diseases, functional intestinal disorders and atopic diseases. Were investigated immunity of infants assessing the content of IgA, IgG and IgM by immunological methods and detected DHA, EPA (n-3 LC PUFAs) and AA (n-6 LC PUFAs) by gas chromatographic analysis in blood serum of children. The outcomes of the study were analysed and processed using statistical methods. 
 

Results: Retrospective clinical findings indicate on higher incidence of acute respiratory tract and atopic diseases as well as functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in infants whose mothers did not use seafood in their diets during the pregnancy and in the lactating period. The research of immunity of children showed no difference in concentration of IgG and IgM in blood serum (p>0,05) but significant difference for IgA concentrations in plasma. In infants of n-3 LC PUFAs group IgA concentration was higher compared to opposite group. The fatty acid composition of the blood serum showed changes in the content of the main representatives of n-3 (DHA, EPA) and n-6 (AA) LC PUFAs. The concentrations of both DHA and EPA were higer while the content of AA was lower in the group of infants whose mothers intake seafood during pregnancy and postnataly. Significant differences were observed for DHA and AA (p<0,05). 
 

Conclusions: This cross-sectoinal study demonstrated favorable role of avalaibility of n-3 LC PUFAs, their long-term effects in preventing the immune-mediated diseases as well as the intestinal functional disorders and health status during early growth and development of infants. 
 

Key words: infants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, immunity, morbidity. 
 

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