• Effect of early social activity in S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage and distribution of pneumococcus serotypes in children of the first five years of life. 
To content

Effect of early social activity in S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage and distribution of pneumococcus serotypes in children of the first five years of life. 

SOVREMENNAYA PEDIATRIYA.2014.2(58):58-63; doi 10.15574/SP.2014.58.58 

Effect of early social activity in S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal carriage and distribution of pneumococcus serotypes in children of the first five years of life. 

Chernysheva L. I., Gilfanova A. M., Bondarenko A. V., Yakimovitch S. A., Rabosh O. V., Yanovskaya V. V., Glushkevichi T. G., Limar T. V., Pomaz G. M., Vlasenko N. O.

P.L.Shupik National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kiev, Ukraine

Bacteriological laboratory SI «Ukrainian Center of Control and Monitoring of Diseases of the Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine», Kiev 

Objective: To study the prevalence of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and distribution of serotypes responsible for the development of invasive diseases, depending on the children's social activity and their microsocial environment. 

Patients and methods. A total of 743 healthy children aged from 6 months to 4 years 11 months and 30 days were examined. For the cultivation of S.pneumoniae was used bloody and «chocolate» agar. In case of negative result of bacteriological examination was conducted DNA extraction from primary material using reagent kit «DNA -sorb -AM» with the following use of PCR in the real time. 

Results. The overall prevalence of S.pneumoniae carriage in children is 53.8 %. Nasopharynx colonized by serotypes on 65.1 % by carriage that is most often responsible for the development of invasive pneumococcal disease. The frequency of the carriage in «home» children is 42.1%; in children attending preschools institutions — 60.4%; in orphanages — 95.6%; in large families, where multiple children attending schools the frequency of the carriage is the highest (92%) and have no difference from children's homes. 

Conclusions. Social activity and also presence of socially active siblings significantly effect on the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus, especially in children up to 4 years. Use of the method of PCR helps to improve identifying of pneumococcus carriers in 2.5 times in comparison with bacteriological studies. 

Key words: Streptococcus pneumoniae, nasopharyngeal carriage, children, social activity. 


1. Маянский АН. 2010. Стрептококки: микробиология и патология. Вопр диагностики в педиатрии. 1: 9—19.

2. Райнерт РР, Тайши Б. 2012. Новые данные по эффективности 13-валентной пневмококковой конъюгированной вакцины в отношении инвазивных пневмококковых инфекций, пневмоний, острого среднего отита и назофарингеального носительства. Педиатрич фармакол. 3: 12—18.

3. Sleeman KL, Griffiths D, Shackley F et al. 2006. Capsular serotype-specific attack rates and duration of carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in a population of children. J Infect Dis. 194(5): 682—688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/505710; PMid:16897668

4. CDC. Prevention of Pneumococcal Disease Among Infants and Children — Use of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR. 2010. 59;RR-11. http://www.cdc.gov.

5. Dagan R. 2009. New insights on pneumococcal disease: What we have learned over the past decade. Vaccine. 27: 3—5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.002; PMid:19552985

6. Park IH, Pritchard DG, Cartee R et al. 2007. Discovery of a new capsular serotype (6C) within serogroup 6 of Streptococcus pneumonia. J Clin Microbiol. 45(4): 1225—1233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02199-06; PMid:17267625 PMCid:PMC1865839

7. Techasaensiri C, Messina AF, Katz K et al. 2010. Epidemiology and evolution of invasive pneumo- coccal disease caused by multidrug resistant serotypes of 19A in the 8 years after implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization in Dallas, Texas. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 29(4): 294—300. PMid:19949357

8. Farha T, Thomson AH. 2005. The burden of pneumonia in children in the developed world. Paediatr Respir Rev. 6(2): 76—82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prrv.2005.03.001; PMid:15911451

9. Rodgers GL, Arguedas A, Cohen R, Dagan R. 2009. Global serotype distribution among S. pneumoniae isolates causing otitis media in children: potential implications for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Vaccine. 27: 3802—3810. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.04.021; PMid:19446378

10. Miller E, Andrews NJ, Waight PA et al. 2011. Herd immunity and serotype replacement 4 years after seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in England and Wales: an observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 11(10): 760—768. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70090-1

11. Stancil JM, Peters TR, Givner LB, Poehling KA. 2009. Potential Impact of Accelerating the Primary Dose of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 163(5): 422—425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.39; PMid:19414687 PMCid:PMC3674486

12. Tyrrell GJ, Lovgren M, Chui N, Minion J et al. 2009. Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae pre- and post-seven valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in Alberta, Canada, 2000—2006. Vaccine. 27: 3553—3560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.063; PMid:19464534

13. Soley C, Arguedas A. 2009. Understanding the link between pneumococcal serotypes and invasive disease. Vaccine. 27: 19—21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.06.003; PMid:19535183

14. Cohen J, Johnson HL, Deloria-Knoll M et al. 2010. Systematic Evaluation of Serotypes Causing Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children Under Five: The Pneumococcal Global Serotype Project. PLoS Medicine. 7(10): e1000348 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000348

15. Brueggemann AB, Peto TE, Crook DW et al. 2004. Temporal and geographic stability of the serogroup-specific invasive disease potential of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children. J Infect Dis. 190(7): 1203—1211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/423820; PMid:15346329

16. Kadioglu A, Weiser JN, Paton JC, Andrew PW. 2008. The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease. Nat Rev Microbiol. 6(4): 288-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro1871; PMid:18340341

17. Tzanakaki G, Mastrantonio P. 2007. Aetiology of bacterial meningitis and resistance to antibiotics of causative pathogens in Europe and in the Mediterranean region. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 29(6): 621—629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2006.11.031; PMid:17368858