- Problem of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms (lecture)
Problem of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms (lecture)
SOVREMENNAYA PEDIATRIYA.2017.2(82):52-56; doi 10.15574/SP.2017.82.52
Tsymbalista O. L.
Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine
The objective of the research was to improve pediatricians' knowledge regarding modern scientific data on the formation of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. The lecture presents the current views on risk factors, causes and mechanisms of developing primary and secondary antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. The latter develops due to mutations, namely changes in endogenous genetic information which is transmitted through chromosomes, as well as the appearance of exogenous genetic information (plasmids and transposons). The role of the multifunctional nature of the efflux system which is controlled by chromosomal genes has been substantiated. The main mechanisms of acquired antibiotic resistance of infectious agents include an impaired penetration of the drug into the pathogen, the emergence of new b-lactamases, as well as the alteration in the expression of the existing ones, impaired transport of antibiotics across the cytoplasmic membrane toward the target site, changes in the structure of the target or the formation of metabolic shunt. The role of biofilm formation in the development of antibiotic resistance of microorganism and chronic forms of bacterial infections has been substantiated. The important role of using antibiotics in veterinary medicine in the formation of microbial resistance to antimicrobial agents has been proven. To reduce the rate of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms it is necessary to strictly adhere to the indications, dosing, as well as the duration of antimicrobial treatment; to consider the spectrum of microflora and its resistance in a certain health care facility; to minimize antibiotic usage, as well as to find their alternatives for using in veterinary medicine.
Keywords: antibiotics, microorganisms, natural and acquired resistance.
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