• Management of pelvic fetal presentation

Management of pelvic fetal presentation

HEALTH OF WOMAN. 2017.4(120):134–142

Green-top Guideline No. 20b, March 2017 Abridged version. Adapted – S.A. Shurpyak
The fourth edition of the manual, the first published in 1999 and revised in 2001 and 2006 under the same title Https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg20b/


1. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. External Cephalic Version and Reducing the Incidence of Term Breech Presentation. Green-top Guideline 20a. London: RCOG. 2017.

2. Fruscalzo A, Londero AP, Salvador S, Bertozzi S, Biasioli A, Della Martina M et al. 2014. New and old predictive factors for breech presentation: our experience in 14 433 singleton pregnancies and a literature review. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 27:167–72. https://doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2013.806891; PMid:23688372

3. Danielian PJ, Wang J, Hall MH. 1996. Long-term outcome by method of delivery of fetuses in breech presentation at term: population based follow up. BMJ 312:1451–3. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.312.7044.1451; PMid:8664622 PMCid:PMC2351189

4. Hannah ME, Hannah WJ, Hewson SA, Hodnett ED, Saigal S, Willan AR. 2000. Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: a randomised multicentre trial. Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group. Lancet 356:1375–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02840-3

5. Berhan Y, Haileamlak A. 2016. The risks of planned vaginal breech delivery versus planned caesarean section for term breech birth: a meta-analysis including observational studies. BJOG 123:49–57. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.13524; PMid:26234485

6. Pasupathy D, Wood AM, Pell JP, Fleming M, Smith GC. 2009. Time trend in the risk of delivery-related perinatal and neonatal death associated with breech presentation at term. Int J Epidemiol 38:490–8. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyn225; PMid:18977783

7. Hofmeyr GJ, Hannah M, Lawrie TA. 2015. Planned caesarean section for term breech delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (7):CD000166. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000166.pub2

8. Whyte H, Hannah ME, Saigal S, Hannah WJ, Hewson S, Amankwah K et al. 2004. Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group. Outcomes of children at 2 years after planned cesarean birth versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: the International Randomized Term Breech Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 191:864–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2004.06.056; PMid:15467555

9. Rietberg CC, Elferink-Stinkens PM, Visser GH. 2005. The effect of the Term Breech Trial on medical intervention behaviour and neonatal outcome in The Netherlands: an analysis of 35,453 term breech infants. BJOG 112:205–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00317.x; PMid:15663585

10. Glezerman M. 2006. Five years to the term breech trial: the rise and fall of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 194:20–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2005.08.039; PMid:16389006

11. Lawson GW. 2012. The term breech trial ten years on: primum non nocere? Birth 39:3–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-536X.2011.00507.x; PMid:22369600

12. Goffinet F, Azria E, Kayem G, Schmitz T, Deneux-Tharaux C. 2016. Re: the risks of planned vaginal breech delivery versus planned caesarean section for term breech birth: a meta-analysis including observational studies: Let’s avoid simplistic radicalism when reality is complex. BJOG 123:145–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.13734; PMid:26715350

13. Su M, McLeod L, Ross S, Willan A, Hannah WJ, Hutton E et al. 2003. Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group. Factors associated with adverse perinatal outcome in the Term Breech Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:740–5. https://doi.org/10.1067/S0002-9378(03)00822-6

14. Goffinet F, Carayol M, Foidart JM, Alexander S, Uzan S, Subtil D et al. 2006. PREMODA Study Group. Is planned vaginal delivery for breech presentation at term still an option? Results of an observational prospective survey in France and Belgium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 194:1002–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2005.10.817; PMid:16580289

15. Vlemmix F, Bergenhenegouwen L, Schaaf JM, Ensing S, Rosman AN, Ravelli AC et al. 2014. Term breech deliveries in the Netherlands: did the increased cesarean rate affect neonatal outcome? A populationbased cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 93:888–96. https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.12449; PMid:25113411

16. Smith GC. 2001. Life-table analysis of the risk of perinatal death at term and post term in singleton pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol 184:489–96. https://doi.org/10.1067/mob.2001.109735; PMid:11228508

17. Hellsten C, Lindqvist PG, Olofsson P. 2003. Vaginal breech delivery: is it still an option? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 111:122–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-2115(03)00189-1

18. Vistad I, Cvancarova M, Hustad BL, Henriksen T. 2013. Vaginal breech delivery: results of a prospective registration study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 13:153. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-13-153; PMid:23883361 PMCid:PMC3728003

19. Toivonen E, Palomäki O, Huhtala H, Uotila J. 2012. Selective vaginal breech delivery at term – still an option. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 91:1177–83. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0412.2012.01488.x; PMid:22708506

20. Doyle NM, Riggs JW, Ramin SM, Sosa MA, Gilstrap LC 3rd. 2005. Outcomes of term vaginal breech delivery. Am J Perinatol 22:325–8. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-871530; PMid:16118722

21. Borbolla Foster A, Bagust A, Bisits A, Holland M, Welsh A. 2014. Lessons to be learnt in managing the breech presentation at term: an 11-year single-centre retrospective study. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 54:333–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajo.12208; PMid:24738867

22. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Birth after Previous Caesarean Birth. Green-top Guideline 45. London: RCOG. 2015.

23. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Choosing to have a Caesarean Section. Information for you. London. RCOG. 2015 https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/patients/patient-leaflets/choosingto-have-a-caesarean-section/

24. Hannah ME, Whyte H, Hannah WJ, Hewson S, Amankwah K, Cheng M et al. 2004. Term Breech Trial Collaborative Group. Maternal outcomes at 2 years after planned cesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: the international randomized Term Breech Trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 191:917–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2004.08.004; PMid:15467565

25. Uddin SF, Simon AE. 2013. Rates and success rates of trial of labor after cesarean delivery in the United States, 1990–2009. Matern Child Health J 17:1309–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-012-1132-6; PMid:22991012

26. Guise JM, Eden K, Emeis C, Denman MA, Marshall N, Fu R et al. 2010. Vaginal Birth after Cesarean: New Insights. Evidence Report/ Technology Assessment 191. Rockville, MD: AHRQ. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181df925f

27. Landon MB, Hauth JC, Leveno KJ, Spong CY, Leindecker S, Varner MW et al. 2004. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with a trial of labor after prior cesarean delivery. N Engl J Med 351:2581–9. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa040405; PMid:15598960

28. Akaba GO, Onafowokan O, Offiong RA, Omonua K, Ekele BA. 2013. Uterine rupture: trends and feto-maternal outcome in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Niger J Med 22:304–8. PMid:24283089

29. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Placenta Praevia, Placenta Praevia Accreta and Vasa Praevia: Diagnosis and Management. Green-top Guideline No. 27. London: RCOG. 2011.

30. Silver RM, Landon MB, Rouse DJ, Leveno KJ, Spong CY, Thom EA et al. 2006. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. Maternal morbidity associated with multiple repeat cesarean deliveries. Obstet Gynecol 107:1226–32. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.AOG.0000219750.79480.84; PMid:16738145

31. Kamara M, Henderson JJ, Doherty DA, Dickinson JE, Pennell CE. 2013. The risk of placenta accreta following primary elective caesarean delivery: a case-control study. BJOG 120:879–86. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.12148; PMid:23448347

32. O’Neill SM, Kearney PM, Kenny LC, Khashan AS, Henriksen TB, Lutomski JE et al. 2013. Caesarean delivery and subsequent stillbirth or miscarriage: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 8:e54588. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054588; PMid:23372739 PMCid:PMC3553078

33. Wood S, Ross S, Sauve R. 2015. Cesarean Section and Subsequent Stillbirth, Is Confounding by Indication Responsible for the Apparent Association? An Updated Cohort Analysis of a Large Perinatal Database. PLoS One 10:e0136272. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136272; PMid:26331274 PMCid:PMC4557984

34. Vendittelli F, Pons JC, Lemery D, Mamelle N. 2006. Obstetricians of the AUDIPOG Sentinel Network. The term breech presentation: Neonatal results and obstetric practices in France. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 125:176–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2005.06.032; PMid:16099580

35. Azria E, Le Meaux JP, Khoshnood B, Alexander S, Subtil D, Goffinet F. 2012. PREMODA Study Group. Factors associated with adverse perinatal outcomes for term breech fetuses with planned vaginal delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 207:285.e1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2012.08.027; PMid:23021690

36. Molkenboer JF, Roumen FJ, Smits LJ, Nijhuis JG. 2006. Birth weight and neurodevelopmental outcome of children at 2 years of age after planned vaginal delivery for breech presentation at term. Am J Obstet Gynecol 194:624–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2005.09.009; PMid:16522389

37. van Loon AJ, Mantingh A, Serlier EK, Kroon G, Mooyaart EL, Huisjes HJ. 1997. Randomised controlled trial of magnetic-resonance pelvimetry in breech presentation at term. Lancet 350:1799–804. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(97)05431-7

38. Kessler J, Moster D, Albrechtsen S. 2015. Intrapartum monitoring with cardiotocography and ST-waveform analysis in breech presentation: an observational study. BJOG 122:528–35. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.12989; PMid:25040705

39. Hemelaar J, Lim LN, Impey LW. 2015. The Impact of an ECV Service is Limited by Antenatal Breech Detection: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Birth 42:165–72. https://doi.org/10.1111/birt.12162; PMid:25872703

40. Evans J. 2012. Understanding physiological breech birth. Essentially MIDIRS 3:17–21.

41. Hodnett ED, Gates S, Hofmeyr GJ, Sakala C. 2013. Continuous support for women during childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (7):CD003766. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003766.pub5

42. Jones L, Othman M, Dowswell T, Alfirevic Z, Gates S, Newburn M et al. 2012. Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD009234. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009234.pub2; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-5391.2012.01182.x

43. Michel S, Drain A, Closset E, Deruelle P, Ego A, Subtil D. 2011. Lille Breech Study Group. Evaluation of a decision protocol for type of delivery of infants in breech presentation at term. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 158:194–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2011.05.003; PMid:21641106

44. Hofmeyr GJ, Kulier R. 2012. Expedited versus conservative approaches for vaginal delivery in breech presentation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (6):CD000082. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000082.pub2

45. Bogner G, Strobl M, Schausberger C, Fischer T, Reisenberger K, Jacobs VR. 2015. Breech delivery in the all fours position: a prospective observational comparative study with classic assistance. J Perinat Med 43:707–13. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpm-2014-0048; PMid:25204214

46. Gupta JK, Nikodem VC. 2000. Woman’s position in the second stage of labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD002006. PMid:10796279

47. Reitter A, Daviss BA, Bisits A, Schollenberger A, Vogl T, Herrmann E et al. 2014. Does pregnancy and/or shifting positions create more room in a woman’s pelvis? Am J Obstet Gynecol 211:662.e1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2014.06.029; PMid:24949546

48. Penn ZJ, Steer PJ, Grant A. 2014. A multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing elective and selective caesarean section for the delivery of the preterm breech infant. BJOG 121(Suppl 7):48–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.13212; PMid:25488088

49. Alfirevic Z, Milan SJ, Livio S. 2013. Caesarean section versus vaginal delivery for preterm birth in singletons. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (9):CD000078. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000078.pub3

50. Bergenhenegouwen LA, Meertens LJ, Schaaf J, Nijhuis JG, Mol BW, Kok M et al. 2014. Vaginal delivery versus caesarean section in preterm breech delivery: a systematic review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 172:1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2013.10.017; PMid:24199680

51. Herbst A, Kallen K. 2007. Influence of mode of delivery on neonatal mortality and morbidity in spontaneous preterm breech delivery. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 133:25–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2006.07.049; PMid:16996196

52. Muhuri PK, Macdorman MF, Menacker F. 2006. Method of delivery and neonatal mortality among very low birth weight infants in the United States. Matern Child Health J 10:47–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-005-0029-z; PMid:16408252

53. Demirci O, Tu_grul AS, Turgut A, Ceylan S, Eren S. 2012. Pregnancy outcomes by mode of delivery among breech births. Arch Gynecol Obstet 285:297–303. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-011-1956-0; PMid:21735191

54. Robilio PA, Boe NM, Danielsen B, Gilbert WM. 2007. Vaginal vs. cesarean delivery for preterm breech presentation of singleton infants in California: a population-based study. J Reprod Med 52:473–9. PMid:17694963

55. Deutsch A, Salihu HM, Lynch O, Marty PJ, Belogolovkin V. 2011. Cesarean delivery versus vaginal delivery: impact on survival and morbidity for the breech fetus at the threshold of viability. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 24:713–7. https://doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2010.516287; https://doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2010.510895

56. Azria E, Kayem G, Langer B, Marchand-Martin L, Marret S, Fresson J et al. 2016. EPIPAGE study group. Neonatal Mortality and Long-Term Outcome of Infants Born between 27 and 32 Weeks of Gestational Age in Breech Presentation: The EPIPAGE Cohort Study. PLoS One 11:e0145768. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145768; PMid:26744838 PMCid:PMC4706444

57. Moutquin JM. 2003. Classification and heterogeneity of preterm birth. BJOG 110(Suppl 20):30–3. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-0528.2003.00021.x; https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-0328(03)00021-1

58. Bowes WA Jr, Taylor ES, O’Brien M, Bowes C. 1979. Breech delivery: evaluation of the method of delivery on perinatal results and maternal morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 135:965–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(79)90823-8

59. Gravenhorst JB, Schreuder AM, Veen S, Brand R, Verloove-Vanhorick SP, Verweij RA et al. 1993. Breech delivery in very preterm and very low birthweight infants in The Netherlands. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 100:411–5. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.1993.tb15263.x; PMid:8518238

60. Cibils LA, Karrison T, Brown L. 1994. Factors influencing neonatal outcomes in the very-low-birth-weight fetus (< 1500 grams) with a breech presentation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 171:35–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9378(94)70074-5

61. Biswas A, Su LL, Mattar C. 2013. Caesarean section for preterm birth and, breech presentation and twin pregnancies. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 27:209–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2012.09.002; PMid:23062593

62. Keirse MJ. 2011. Commentary: the freezing aftermath of a hot randomized controlled trial. Birth 38:165–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-536X.2011.00467.x; PMid:21599741

63. Kayem G, Baumann R, Goffinet F, El Abiad S, Ville Y, Cabrol D et al. 2008. Early preterm breech delivery: is a policy of planned vaginal delivery associated with increased risk of neonatal death? Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:289.e1–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2007.10.794; PMid:18241827

64. Robertson PA, Foran CM, Croughan-Minihane MS, Kilpatrick SJ. 1996. Head entrapment and neonatal outcome by mode of delivery in breech deliveries from 28 to 36 weeks of gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 174:1742–7; discussion 1747–9.

65. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Multiple pregnancy: antenatal care for twin and triplet pregnancies. NICE clinical guideline 129. Manchester: NICE. 2011.

66. Hogle KL, Hutton EK, McBrien KA, Barrett JF, Hannah ME. 2003. Cesarean delivery for twins: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188:220–7. https://doi.org/10.1067/mob.2003.64; PMid:12548221

67. Oettinger M, Ophir E, Markovitz J, Stolero E, Odeh M. 1993. Is caesarean section necessary for delivery of a breech first twin? Gynecol Obstet Invest 35:38–43. https://doi.org/10.1159/000292660; PMid:8449432

68. Sentilhes L, Goffinet F, Talbot A, Diguet A, Verspyck E, Cabrol D et al. 2007. Attempted vaginal versus planned cesarean delivery in 195 breech first twin pregnancies. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86:55–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/00016340601089594; PMid:17230290

69. Steins Bisschop CN, Vogelvang TE, May AM, Schuitemaker NW. 2012. Mode of delivery in non-cephalic presenting twins: a systematic review. Arch Gynecol Obstet 286:237–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00404-012-2294-6; PMid:22465994 PMCid:PMC3374120

70. Cohen M, Kohl SG, Rosenthal AH. 1965. Fetal interlocking complicating twin gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 91:407–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(65)90257-7

71. Barrett JF, Hannah ME, Hutton EK, Willan AR, Allen AC, Armson BA et al. 2013. Twin Birth Study Collaborative Group. A randomized trial of planned cesarean or vaginal delivery for twin pregnancy. N Engl J Med 369:1295–305. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1214939; PMid:24088091 PMCid:PMC3954096

72. Rabinovici J, Barkai G, Reichman B, Serr DM, Mashiach S. 1987. Randomized management of the second nonvertex twin: vaginal delivery or caesarean section. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156:52–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(87)90201-8

73. Ginsberg NA, Levine EM. 2005. Delivery of the second twin. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 91:217–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijgo.2005.08.017; PMid:16229847

74. Yang Q, Wen SW, Chen Y, Krewski D, Fung Kee Fung K, Walker M. 2005. Neonatal death and morbidity in vertex-nonvertex second twins according to mode of delivery and birth weight. Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:840–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2004.09.132; PMid:15746680

75. Sibony O, Touitou S, Luton D, Oury JF, Blot P. 2006. Modes of delivery of first and second twins as a function of their presentation. Study of 614 consecutive patients from 1992 to 2000. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 126:180–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2005.08.013

76. Caukwell S, Murphy DJ. 2002. The effect of mode of delivery and gestational age on neonatal outcome of the non-cephalicpresenting second twin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 187:1356–61. https://doi.org/10.1067/mob.2002.128090; PMid:12439531

Содержание журнала Full text of article