• Management of painful bladder syndrome Green-top Guideline № 70 RCOG/BSUG Joint Guideline | November 2016

Management of painful bladder syndrome Green-top Guideline № 70 RCOG/BSUG Joint Guideline | November 2016

HEALTH OF WOMAN. 2017.2(118):139–148

A condensed version. Adapted by S. A. Shurpyak


1. Van de Merwe JP, Nordling J, Bouchelouche P, Bouchelouche K, Cervigni M, Daha LK et al. 2008. Diagnostic criteria, classification, and nomenclature for painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: an ESSIC proposal. Eur Urol 53: 60–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2007.09.019; PMid:17900797

2. American Urological Association. Diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Linthicum, MD, AUA. 2014.

3. Persu C, Cauni V, Gutue S, Blaj I, Jinga V, Geavlete P. 2010. From interstitial cystitis to chronic pelvic pain. J Med Life 3:167–74. PMid:20968203 PMCid:PMC3019050

4. Gillenwater JY, Wein AJ. 1988. Summary of the National Institute of Arthritis, Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases Workshop on Interstitial Cystitis, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, August 28-29, 1987. J Urol 140:203–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(17)41529-1

5. Abrams PH, Cardozo L, Fall M, Griffiths D, Rosier P, Ulmsten U et al. 2002. Standardisation Sub-committee of the International Continence Society. The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: report from the Standardisation Sub- committee of the International Continence Society. Neurourol Urodyn 21:167–78. https://doi.org/10.1002/nau.10052; PMid:11857671

6. Konkle KS, Berry SH, Elliott MN, Hilton L, Suttorp MJ, Clauw DJ et al. 2012. Comparison of an interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome clinical cohort with symptomatic community women from the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology study. J Urol 187: 508–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2011.10.040; PMid:22177158 PMCid:PMC3894739

7. Clemens JQ, Link CL, Eggers PW, Kusek JW, Nyberg LM Jr, McKinlay JB. 2007. BACH Survey Investigators. Prevalence of painful bladder symptoms and effect on quality of life in black, Hispanic and white men and women. J Urol 177: 1390–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2006.11.084; PMid:17382739

8. Berry SH, Stoto MA, Elliott M, Suttorp M, Bogart L, Eggers PW et al. 2009. Prevalence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in the United States. J Urol 181 Suppl 4:20–1. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(09)60070-7

9. Clemens JQ, Meenan RT, O’Keeffe Rosetti MC, Brown SO, Gao SY, Calhoun EA. 2005. Prevalence of interstitial cystitis symptoms in a managed care population. J Urol 174:576–80. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000165170.43617.be; PMid:16006901

10. Bogart LM, Berry SH, Clemens JQ. 2007. Symptoms of interstitial cystitis, painful bladder syndrome and similar diseases in women: a systematic review. J Urol 177: 450–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2006.09.032; PMid:17222607

11. Fall M, Baranowski AP, Fowler CJ, Lepinard V, Malone-Lee JG, Messelink EJ et al. 2004. European Association of Urology. EAU guidelines on chronic pelvic pain. Eur Urol 46: 681–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2004.07.030; PMid:15548433

12. Hanno P, Lin A, Nordling J, Nyberg L, van Ophoven A, Ueda T et al. 2010. Bladder Pain Syndrome Committee of the International Consultation on Incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn 29: 191–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/nau.20847; PMid:20025029

13. Tirlapur SA, Khan KS. 2016. An assessment of clinicians’ and patients’ experiences in the management of bladder pain syndrome. J Obstet Gynecol 36: 241–5. https://doi.org/10.3109/01443615.2015.1060200; PMid:26467216

14. Selfe SA, Matthews Z, Stones RW. 1998. Factors influencing outcome in consultations for chronic pelvic pain. J Womens Health 7: 1041–8. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.1998.7.1041; PMid:9812301

15. McGowan L, Luker K, Creed F, Chew-Graham CA. 2007. How do you explain a pain that can’t be seen? The narratives of women with chronic pelvic pain and their disengagement with the diagnostic cycle. Br J Health Psychol 12: 261–74. https://doi.org/10.1348/135910706X104076; PMid:17456285

16. Price J, Farmer G, Harris J, Hope T, Kennedy S, Mayou R. 2006. Attitudes of women with chronic pelvic pain to the gynaecological consultation: a qualitative study. BJOG 113: 446–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2006.00862.x; PMid:16489938

17. Parsons CL, Dell J, Stanford EJ, Bullen M, Kahn BS, Waxell T et al. 2002. Increased prevalence of interstitial cystitis: previously unrecognized urologic and gynecologic cases identified using a new symptom questionnaire and intravesical potassium sensitivity. Urology 60: 573–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-4295(02)01829-0

18. Warren JW, Brown J, Tracy JK, Langenberg P, Wesselmann U, Greenberg P. 2008. Evidence-based criteria for pain of interstitial cystitis/ painful bladder syndrome in women. Urology 71: 444–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2007.10.062; PMid:18342184 PMCid:PMC2293273

19. Tincello DG, Walker AC. 2005. Interstitial cystitis in the UK: results of a questionnaire survey of members of the Interstitial Cystitis Support Group. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 118: 91–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2004.06.012; PMid:15596280

20. Latthe P, Mignini L, Gray R, Hills R, Khan K. 2006. Factors predisposing women to chronic pelvic pain: systematic review. BMJ 332: 749–55. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.38748.697465.55; PMid:16484239 PMCid:PMC1420707

21. Champaneria R, D’Andrea RM, Latthe PM. 2016. Hormonal contraception and pelvic floor function: a systematic review. Int Urogynecol J. 27: 709–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-015-2833-3; PMid:26407563

22. Al-Hadithi HN, Williams H, Hart CA, Frazer M, Adams EJ, Richmond DH et al. 2005. Absence of bacterial and viral DNA in bladder biopsies from patients with interstitial cystitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. J Urol. 174: 151–4. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000161605.14804.a9; PMid:15947607

23. Peters KM, Carrico DJ, Diokno AC. 2008. Characterization of a clinical cohort of 87 women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Urology 71: 634–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2007.11.013; PMid:18387392

24. Gomes CM, Sanchez-Ortiz RF, Harris C, Wein AJ, Rovner ES. 2001. Significance of hematuria in patients with interstitial cystitis: review of radiographic and endoscopic findings. Urology 57: 262–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-4295(00)00918-3

25. Messing E, Pauk D, Schaeffer A, Nieweglowski M, Nyberg LM Jr, Landis JR et al. 1997. Associations among cystoscopic findings and symptoms and physical examination findings in women enrolled in the Interstitial Cystitis Data Base (ICDB) Study. Urology 49 Suppl 5A: 81–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-4295(99)80336-7

26. Cole EE, Scarpero HM, Dmochowski RR. 2005. Are patient symptoms predictive of the diagnostic and/or therapeutic value of hydrodistention? Neurourol Urodyn 24: 638–42. https://doi.org/10.1002/nau.20200; PMid:16208660

27. Waxman JA, Sulak PJ, Kuehl TJ. 1998. Cystoscopic findings consistent with interstitial cystitis in normal women undergoing tubal ligation. J Urol 160: 1663–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(01)62376-0; https://doi.org/10.1097/00005392-199811000-00016; PMid:9783927

28. Van Dyck J, Geurts N, Wyndaele JJ. Painful bladder syndrome: do the different histopathological features correlate  International Continence Society/International Urogynecological Association (ICS/IUGA) 2010, 23–27 August 2010, Toronto, Canada. Abstract 239. www.ics.org/Abstracts/Publish/105/ 000239.pdf. Accessed 2015 Jun 26.

29. Wyndaele JJ, Van Dyck J, Toussaint N. 2009. Cystoscopy and bladder biopsies in patients with bladder pain syndrome carried out following ESSIC guidelines. Scand J Urol Nephrol 43: 471–5. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365590903199007; PMid:19707951

30. Higson RH, Smith JC, Whelan P. 1978. Bladder rupture: an acceptable complication of distension therapy? Br J Urol 50: 529–34. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.1978.tb06206.x; PMid:753506

31. Al-Zahrani AA, Gajewski JB. 2011. Long-term efficacy and tolerability  of pentosan polysulphate sodium in the treatment of bladder  pain syndrome. Can Urol Assoc J 5: 113–8. https://doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.597; https://doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.10095; PMid:21470538 PMCid:PMC3104432

32. Carr LK, Corcos J, Nickel JC, Teichman J. 2009. Diagnosis of  interstitial cystitis June 2007. Can Urol Assoc J 3: 81–6. https://doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.1030; PMid:19293986 PMCid:PMC2645876

33. Goin JE, Olaleye D, Peters KM, Steinert B, Habicht K, Wynant G. 1998. Psychometric analysis of the University of Wisconsin Interstitial Cystitis Scale: implications for use in randomized clinical trials. J Urol 159: 1085–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(01)63840-0; https://doi.org/10.1097/00005392-199803000-00152; PMid:9474236

34. O’Leary MP, Sant GR, Fowler FJ Jr, Whitmore KE, Spolarich-Kroll J. 1997. The interstitial cystitis symptom index and problem index. Urology 49 Suppl 5A: 58–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-4295(99)80333-1

35. Quaghebeur J, Wyndaele JJ. 2013. Comparison of questionnaires used for the evaluation of patients with chronic pelvic pain. Neurourol Urodyn 32: 1074–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/nau.22364; PMid:23359143

36. Hawker GA, Mian S, Kendzerska T, French M. 2011. Measures of adult pain: Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short- Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS), and Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP). Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 63; 11: S240–52. https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.20543; PMid:22588748

37. Brief Pain Inventory (Short Form). http://www.npcrc.org/files/ news/briefpain_short.pdf. Accessed 2015 May 04. 

38. Rapariz-Gonz alez M, Castro-D ıaz D. Mej эa-Rendo n D. EURCIS. 2014. Evaluation of the impact of the urinary symptoms on quality of life of patients with painful bladder syndrome/chronic pelvic pain and radiation cystitis: EURCIS study. Actas Urol Esp 38: 224–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acuroe.2014.02.008

39. Bogart LM, Suttorp MJ, Elliott MN, Clemens JQ, Berry SH. 2011. Prevalence and correlates of sexual dysfunction among women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Urology 77:576–80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2010.10.016; PMid:21215432 PMCid:PMC3059214

40. Tirlapur SA, Kuhrt K, Chaliha C, Ball E, Meads C, Khan KS. 2013. The ‘evil twin syndrome’ in chronic pelvic pain: a systematic review of prevalence studies of bladder pain syndrome and endometriosis. Int J Surg 11: 233–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2013.02.003; PMid:23419614

41. Suskind AM, Berry SH, Suttorp MJ, Elliott MN, Hays RD, Ewing BA et al. 2013. Health-related quality of life in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and frequently associated comorbidities. Qual Life Res 22: 1537–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-012-0285-5; PMid:23054497 PMCid:PMC3593950

42. O’Hare PG 3rd, Hoffmann AR, Allen P, Gordon B, Salin L, Whitmore K. 2013. Interstitial cystitis patients’ use and rating of complementary and alternative medicine therapies. Int Urogynecol J 24: 977–82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-012-1966-x; PMid:23149598

43. Shorter B, Lesser M, Moldwin RM, Kushner L. 2007. Effect of comestibles on symptoms of interstitial cystitis. J Urol 178: 145–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2007.03.020; PMid:17499305

44. Cervigni M, Natale F. 2014. Gynecological disorders in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients. Int J Urol 21 Suppl 1: 85–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/iju.12379; PMid:24807511

45. Faculty of Pain Medicine. Opioids Aware: A resource for patients and healthcare professionals to support prescribing of opioid medicines for pain. London, The Royal College of Anaesthetists. 2016. http:// www.rcoa.ac.uk/faculty-of-pain-medicine/opioids-aware. Accessed 2015 May 04.

46. Verghese TS, Riordain RN, Champaneria R, Latthe PM. 2016. Complementary therapies for bladder pain syndrome: a systematic review. Int Urogynecol J 27: 1127–36. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-015-2886-3; PMid:26642800 PMCid:PMC4947099

47. Giannantoni A, Bini V, Dmochowski R, Hanno P, Nickel JC, Proietti S et al. 2012. Contemporary management of the painful bladder: a systematic review. Eur Urol 61: 29–53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2011.07.069; PMid:21920661

48. Foster HE Jr, Hanno PM, Nickel JC, Payne CK, Mayer RD, Burks DA et al. 2010. Interstitial Cystitis Collaborative Research Network. Effect of amitriptyline on symptoms in treatment naЂэve patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. J Urol 183: 1853–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2009.12.106; PMid:20303115 PMCid:PMC2861998

49. Van Ophoven A, Pokupic S, Heinecke A, Hertle L. 2004. A prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind study of amitriptyline for the treatment of interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 172: 533–6. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000132388.54703.4d; PMid:15247722

50. Thilagarajah R, Witherow RO, Walker MM. 2001. Oral cimetidine gives effective symptom relief in painful bladder disease: a prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. BJU Int. 87: 207–12. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1464-410x.2001.02031.x; PMid:11167643

51. Matsuoka PK, Haddad JM, Pacetta AM, Baracat EC. 2012. Intravesical treatment of painful bladder syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Urogynecol J 23: 1147–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-012-1686-2; PMid:22569686

52. Nickel JC, Moldwin R, Lee S, Davis EL, Henry RA, Wyllie MG. 2009. Intravesical alkalinized lidocaine (PSD597) offers sustained relief from symptoms of interstitial cystitis and painful bladder syndrome. BJU Int. 103: 910–8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08162.x; PMid:19021619

53. Barua JM, Arance I, Angulo JC, Riedl CR. 2016. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of intravesical therapy for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Int Urogynecol J. 27: 1137–47. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-015-2890-7; PMid:26590137 PMCid:PMC4947101

54. Tirumuru S, Al-Kurdi D, Latthe P. 2010. Intravesical botulinum toxin A injections in the treatment of painful bladder syndrome/ interstitial cystitis: a systematic review. Int Urogynecol J 21: 1285–300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-010-1162-9; PMid:20449567

55. Kuo HC, Chancellor MB. 2009. Comparison of intravesical botulinum toxin type A injections plus hydrodistention with hydrodistention alone for the treatment of refractory interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. BJU Int. 104: 657–61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.08495.x; PMid:19338543

56. El-Bahnasy AE, Farahat YA, El-Bendary M, Taha MR, El-Damhogy M, Mourad S. 2009. A randomized controlled trial of bacillus Calmette–Guerin and botulinum toxin-A for the treatment of refractory interstitial cystitis. UroToday Int J. 2(1).

57. Manning JA, Dwyer P, Rosamilia A, Murray C, Thomas E, Beattie K. 2009. Prospective randomised double blind study of the effectiveness of botulinum A toxin for treatment of refractory painful bladder syndrome. Int Urogynecol J 20 Suppl. 2: 87–8.

58. Smith CP, Radziszewski P, Borkowski A, Somogyi GT, Boone TB, Chancellor MB. 2004. Botulinum toxin a has antinociceptive effects in treating interstitial cystitis. Urology 64: 871–5; discussion 875. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2004.06.073; PMid:15533466

59. Kuo HC. 2005. Preliminary results of suburothelial injection of botulinum a toxin in the treatment of chronic interstitial cystitis. Urol Int. 75: 170–4. https://doi.org/10.1159/000087173; PMid:16123573

60. Carl S, Grosse J, Laschke S. 2007. Treatment of interstitial cystitis with botulinum toxin type A. Eur Urol. 6: 248. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1569-9056(07)60897-5; https://doi.org/10.1016/S1569-9056(07)60896-3

61. Pinto RA, Silva A, Lopes T, Silva JF, Silva CM, Cruz FR et al. 2009. Intra-trigonal injection of botulinum toxin A in patients with bladder pain syndrome – results at 9-months follow-up. J Urol. 181: 20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(09)60068-9

62. Davies AM, Chahal R, Inman R, Urwin G. 2006. Intravesical botulinum A toxin (BotoxTM) – does it have a role in the management of interstitial cystitis? Eur Urol Suppl. 5: 222. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1569-9056(06)60805-1

63. Ramsay AK, Small DR, Conn IG. 2007. Intravesical botulinum toxin type A in chronic interstitial cystitis: results of a pilot study. Surgeon 5: 331–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1479-666X(07)80084-9

64. Giannantoni A, Porena M, Costantini E, Zucchi A, Mearini L, Mearini E. 2008. Botulinum A toxin intravesical injection in patients with painful bladder syndrome: 1-year followup. J Urol. 179: 1031–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2007.10.032; PMid:18206941

65. Dimitrakov J, Kroenke K, Steers WD, Berde C, Zurakowski D, Freeman MR et al. 2007. Pharmacologic management of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 167: 1922–9. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.167.18.1922; PMid:17923590 PMCid:PMC2135553

66. Perez-Marrero R, Emerson LE, Feltis JT. 1988. A controlled study of dimethyl sulfoxide in interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 140: 36–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(17)41478-9

67. Parsons CL, Housley T, Schmidt JD, Lebow D. 1994. Treatment of  interstitial cystitis with intravesical heparin. Br J Urol. 73: 504–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.1994.tb07634.x; PMid:8012771

68. Thakkinstian A, Nickel JC. 2013. Efficacy of intravesical chondroitin sulphate in treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS): Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analytical  approach. Can Urol Assoc J. 7: 195–200. https://doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.1257; PMid:23826048 PMCid:PMC3699082

69. Cervigni M, Natale F, Nasta L, Mako A. 2012. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate for bladder pain syndrome/ interstitial cystitis: long-term treatment results. Int Urogynecol J. 23: 1187–92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-012-1742-y; PMid:22569687

70. Porru D, Cervigni M, Nasta L, Natale F, Gardella B, Voi RL et al. 2008. Effects of endovesical hyaluronic acid/chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Eur Urol Suppl. 7: 286. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1569-9056(08)60859-3

71. Giberti C, Gallo F, Cortese P, Schenone M. 2013. Combined intravesical sodium hyaluronate/chondroitin sulfate therapy for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: a prospective study. Ther Adv Urol. 5: 175–9. https://doi.org/10.1177/1756287213490052; PMid:23904856 PMCid:PMC3721440

72. Homma Y, Ueda T, Ito T, Takei M, Tomoe H. 2009. Japanese guideline for diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis. Int J Urol. 16: 4–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2042.2008.02208.x; PMid:19120522

73. Malloy TR, Shanberg AM. 1994. Laser therapy for interstitial cystitis. Urol Clin North Am 21:141–4. PMid:8284837

74. Rofeim O, Hom D, Freid RM, Moldwin RM. 2001. Use of the neodymium: YAG laser for interstitial cystitis: a prospective study. J Urol. 166: 134–6. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005392-200107000-00031; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)66093-4

75. Bosch JL. 2006. Electrical neuromodulatory therapy in female voiding dysfunction. BJU Int 98 Suppl 1:43–8; discussion 49. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.06316.x; PMid:16911602

76. Hassouna MM, Siegel SW, N€yeholt AA, Elhilali MM, van Kerrebroeck PE, Das AK et al. 2000. Sacral neuromodulation in the treatment of urgency-frequency symptoms: a multicenter study on efficacy and safety. J Urol. 163: 1849–54. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005392-200006000-00050; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)67558-1

77. Zhao J, Bai J, Zhou Y, Qi G, Du L. 2008. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation twice a week in patients with interstitial cystitis. Urology. 71: 1080–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2008.01.018; PMid:18372023

78. Whitmore KE, Payne CK, Diokno AC, Lukban JC. 2003. Sacral neuromodulation in patients with interstitial cystitis: a multicenter clinical trial. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 14: 305–8; discussion 308–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-003-1080-1; PMid:14618305

79. Maher CF, Carey MP, Dwyer PL, Schluter PL. 2001. Percutaneous sacral nerve root neuromodulation for intractable interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 165: 884–6. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005392-200103000-00036; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)66551-2

80. Comiter CV. 2003. Sacral neuromodulation for the symptomatic treatment of refractory interstitial cystitis: a prospective study. J Urol. 169: 1369–73. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000053863.96967.5a; PMid:12629364

81. Steinberg AC, Oyama IA, Whitmore KE. 2007. Bilateral S3 stimulator in patients with interstitial cystitis. Urology. 69: 441–3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2006.10.032; PMid:17382139

82. Powell CR, Kreder KJ. 2010. Long-term outcomes of urgency-frequency syndrome due to painful bladder syndrome treated with sacral neuromodulation and analysis of failures. J Urol. 183: 173–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2009.08.142; PMid:19913835

83. Sairanen J, Forsell T, Ruutu M. 2004. Long-term outcome of patients with interstitial cystitis treated with low dose cyclosporine A. J Urol. 171: 2138–41. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000125139.91203.7a; PMid:15126772

84. Erickson DR, Xie SX, Bhavanandan VP, Wheeler MA, Hurst RE, Demers LM et al. 2002. A comparison of multiple urine markers for interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 167: 2461–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)65005-7; https://doi.org/10.1097/00005392-200206000-00026; PMid:11992058

85. Erickson DR, Kunselman AR, Bentley CM, Peters KM, Rovner ES, Demers LM et al. 2007. Changes in urine markers and symptoms after bladder distention for interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 177: 556–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2006.09.029; PMid:17222633 PMCid:PMC2373609

86. Ottem DP, Teichman JM. 2005. What is the value of cystoscopy with hydrodistension for interstitial cystitis? Urology. 66: 494–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2005.04.011; PMid:16140064

87. Kim HJ, Lee JS, Cho WJ, Lee HS, Lee HN, You HW et al. 2014. Efficacy and safety of augmentation ileocystoplasty combined with supratrigonal cystectomy for the treatment of refractory bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis with Hunner’s lesion. Int J Urol. 21 Suppl 1: 69–73. https://doi.org/10.1111/iju.12320; PMid:24807503

88. Rossberger J, Fall M, Jonsson O, Peeker R. 2007. Long-term results of reconstructive surgery in patients with bladder pain syndrome/ interstitial cystitis: subtyping is imperative. Urology 70: 638–642. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2007.05.028; PMid:17991529

89. Sant GR, Propert KJ, Hanno PM, Burks D, Culkin D, Diokno AC et al. 2003. Interstitial Cystitis Clinical Trials Group. A pilot clinical trial of oral pentosan polysulfate and oral hydroxyzine in patients with interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 170: 810–5. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000083020.06212.3d; PMid:12913705

90. Nickel JC, Herschorn S, Whitmore KE, Forrest JB, Hu P, Friedman AJ et al. 2015. Pentosan polysulfate sodium for treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: insights from a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. J Urol. 193: 857–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2014.09.036; PMid:25245489

91. Warren JW, Horne LM, Hebel JR, Marvel RP, Keay SK, Chai TC. 2000. Pilot study of sequential oral antibiotics for the treatment of interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 163: 1685–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)67520-9; https://doi.org/10.1097/00005392-200006000-00012; PMid:10799160

92. Dawson TE, Jamison J. 2007. Intravesical treatments for painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. (4): CD006113. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006113.pub2

93. Mayer R, Propert KJ, Peters KM, Payne CK, Zhang Y, Burks D et al. 2005. Interstitial Cystitis Clinical Trials Group. A randomized controlled trial of intravesical bacillus calmette-guerin for treatment refractory interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 173: 1186–91. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000152337.82806.e8; PMid:15758738

94. Peters K, Diokno A, Steinert B, Yuhico M, Mitchell B, Krohta S et al. 1997. The efficacy of intravesical Tice strain bacillus Calmette- Guerin in the treatment of interstitial cystitis: a double-blind, prospective, placebo controlled trial. J Urol. 157: 2090–4. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005392-199706000-00015; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(01)64682-2

95. McCahy PJ, Styles RA. 1995. Prolonged bladder distension: experience in the treatment of detrusor overactivity and interstitial cystitis. Eur Urol. 28: 325–7. PMid:8575501

96. Glemain P, Rivi ere C, Lenormand L, Karam G, Bouchot O, Buzelin JM. 2002. Prolonged hydrodistention of the bladder for symptomatic treatment of interstitial cystitis: efficacy at 6 months and 1 year. Eur Urol. 41: 79–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0302-2838(01)00006-9

97. Hosseini A, Ehr en I, Wiklund NP. 2004. Nitric oxide as an objective marker for evaluation of treatment response in patients with classic interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 172: 2261–5. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000144761.69398.be; PMid:15538244

98. Soucy F, Gregoire M. 2005. Efficacy of prednisone for severe refractory ulcerative interstitial cystitis. J Urol. 173: 841–3; discussion 843. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ju.0000153612.14639.19; PMid:15711286

99. FitzGerald MP, Payne CK, Lukacz ES, Yang CC, Peters KM, Chai TC et al. 2012. Interstitial Cystitis Collaborative Research Network. Randomized multicenter clinical trial of myofascial physical therapy in women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and pelvic floor tenderness. J Urol. 187: 2113–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2012.01.123; PMid:22503015 PMCid:PMC3351550

100. Erickson DR, Propert KJ. 2007. Pregnancy and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. Urol Clin North Am. 34: 61–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ucl.2006.10.006; PMid:17145362

101. Simon LJ, Landis JR, Erickson DR, Nyberg LM. 1997. The Interstitial Cystitis Data Base Study: concepts and preliminary baseline descriptive statistics. Urology 49 Suppl 5A: 64–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-4295(99)80334-3

102. Bjшrn AM, Ehrenstein V, Nohr EA, Nшrgaard M. 2015. Use of inhaled and oral corticosteroids in pregnancy and the risk of malformations or miscarriage. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 116: 308–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.12367; PMid:25515299

103. Skuladottir H, Wilcox AJ, Ma C, Lammer EJ, Rasmussen SA, Werler MM et al. 2014. Corticosteroid use and risk of orofacial clefts. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 100: 499–506. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdra.23248; PMid:24777675 PMCid:PMC4283705

104. El-Khawand D, Montgomery OC, Wehbe SA, Whitmore KE. 2012. Sacral nerve stimulation during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 18: 127–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/SPV.0b013e3182436ae9; PMid:22453325

105. Onwude JL, Selo-Ojeme DO. 2003. Pregnancy outcomes following the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 56: 160–2. https://doi.org/10.1159/000073949; PMid:14534371

Содержание журнала Full text of article